1309 Hyperborea

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1309 Hyperborea
Discovery [1]
Discovered byG. Neujmin
Discovery siteSimeiz Obs.
Discovery date11 October 1931
MPC designation(1309) Hyperborea
Named after
(Greek mythology)
1931 TO · 1934 GT
1971 SG1 · 1973 AW4
A919 RB · A919 SH
main-belt · (outer)[1][3]
background [4]
Orbital characteristics[1]
Epoch 4 September 2017 (JD 2458000.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc98.23 yr (35,880 days)
Aphelion3.6888 AU
Perihelion2.7251 AU
3.2069 AU
5.74 yr (2,098 days)
0° 10m 17.76s / day
Physical characteristics
Dimensions55.14±14.34 km[5]
55.48±13.26 km[6]
57.11 km (derived)[3]
57.15±3.9 km[7]
57.570±0.349 km[8]
57.99±0.72 km[9]
61.605±1.019 km[10]
64.40±2.03 km[11]
13.858±0.004 h[12]
13.88±0.02 h[13]
13.95±0.02 h[14]
0.0411 (derived)[3]
10.20[7][9][10] · 10.30[3][11] · 10.30±0.11[15] · 10.40[1][5] · 10.43[6]

1309 Hyperborea, provisional designation 1931 TO, is a carbonaceous background asteroid from the outermost regions of the asteroid belt, approximately 57 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 11 October 1931, by Soviet astronomer Grigory Neujmin at the Simeiz Observatory on the Crimean peninsula.[16] The asteroid was named after Hyperborea, the northern homeland of a Greek mythical race of giants.[2]

Orbit and classification[edit]

Hyperborea is a non-family asteroid of the main belt's background population.[4] It orbits the Sun in the outermost asteroid belt at a distance of 2.7–3.7 AU once every 5 years and 9 months (2,098 days; semi-major axis of 3.21 AU). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.15 and an inclination of 10° with respect to the ecliptic.[1]

The body's observation arc begins at Heidelberg Observatory with its first observations as A919 RB in September 1919, or 12 years prior to its official discovery observation at Simeiz.[16]

Physical characteristics[edit]

Hyperborea has been characterized as a carbonaceous C-type asteroid by Pan-STARRS photometric survey.[15]

Rotation period[edit]

Between 2002 and 2017, four rotational lightcurves of Hyperborea were obtained from photometric observations by astronomers Francisco Sold and Pierre Antonini, as well as by astronomers at the Oakley Southern Sky and Rozhen Observatory in Australia and Bulgaria, respectively (U=2+/n.a./3/2).[12][13][14] The consolidated lightcurve gave a rotation period of 13.88 hours with a brightness amplitude between 0.34 and 0.41 magnitude.[3]

Diameter and albedo[edit]

According to the surveys carried out by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite IRAS, the Japanese Akari satellite and the NEOWISE mission of NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, Hyperborea measures between 55.14 and 64.40 kilometers in diameter and its surface has an albedo between 0.03 and 0.0450.[5][6][7][8][9][10][11]

The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link derives an albedo of 0.0411 and a diameter of 57.11 kilometers based on an absolute magnitude of 10.3.[3]


This minor planet was named after Hyperborea, the homeland of the Hyperboreans, a Greek mythical race of giants associated with the cult of Apollo. Herodotus placed the region far to the north of Thrace beyond the North Wind. It was therefore believed to be a region of perpetual sunshine. Lutz Schmadel, the author of the Dictionary of Minor Planets, learned about the naming from Russian astronomer Nataliya Sergeevna Samoilova-Yakhontova (see 1653 Yakhontovia).[2]


  1. ^ a b c d e "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 1309 Hyperborea (1931 TO)" (2017-11-25 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 15 December 2017.
  2. ^ a b c Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). "(1309) Hyperborea". Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (1309) Hyperborea. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 107. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-29925-7_1310. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g "LCDB Data for (1309) Hyperborea". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 15 December 2017.
  4. ^ a b "Small Bodies Data Ferret". Nesvorny HCM Asteroid Families V3.0. Retrieved 15 December 2017.
  5. ^ a b c d Nugent, C. R.; Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Bauer, J.; Cutri, R. M.; Grav, T.; et al. (December 2015). "NEOWISE Reactivation Mission Year One: Preliminary Asteroid Diameters and Albedos". The Astrophysical Journal. 814 (2): 13. arXiv:1509.02522. Bibcode:2015ApJ...814..117N. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/814/2/117. Retrieved 15 December 2017.
  6. ^ a b c d Nugent, C. R.; Mainzer, A.; Bauer, J.; Cutri, R. M.; Kramer, E. A.; Grav, T.; et al. (September 2016). "NEOWISE Reactivation Mission Year Two: Asteroid Diameters and Albedos". The Astronomical Journal. 152 (3): 12. arXiv:1606.08923. Bibcode:2016AJ....152...63N. doi:10.3847/0004-6256/152/3/63. Retrieved 15 December 2017.
  7. ^ a b c d Tedesco, E. F.; Noah, P. V.; Noah, M.; Price, S. D. (October 2004). "IRAS Minor Planet Survey V6.0". NASA Planetary Data System: IRAS-A-FPA-3-RDR-IMPS-V6.0. Bibcode:2004PDSS...12.....T. Archived from the original on 2016-06-03. Retrieved 15 December 2017.
  8. ^ a b c Masiero, Joseph R.; Grav, T.; Mainzer, A. K.; Nugent, C. R.; Bauer, J. M.; Stevenson, R.; et al. (August 2014). "Main-belt Asteroids with WISE/NEOWISE: Near-infrared Albedos". The Astrophysical Journal. 791 (2): 11. arXiv:1406.6645. Bibcode:2014ApJ...791..121M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/791/2/121.
  9. ^ a b c d Usui, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Müller, Thomas G.; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ootsubo, Takafumi; et al. (October 2011). "Asteroid Catalog Using Akari: AKARI/IRC Mid-Infrared Asteroid Survey". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 63 (5): 1117–1138. Bibcode:2011PASJ...63.1117U. doi:10.1093/pasj/63.5.1117. Retrieved 15 December 2017.
  10. ^ a b c d Mainzer, A.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; Hand, E.; Bauer, J.; Tholen, D.; et al. (November 2011). "NEOWISE Studies of Spectrophotometrically Classified Asteroids: Preliminary Results". The Astrophysical Journal. 741 (2): 25. arXiv:1109.6407. Bibcode:2011ApJ...741...90M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/741/2/90.
  11. ^ a b c d Masiero, Joseph R.; Mainzer, A. K.; Grav, T.; Bauer, J. M.; Cutri, R. M.; Nugent, C.; et al. (November 2012). "Preliminary Analysis of WISE/NEOWISE 3-Band Cryogenic and Post-cryogenic Observations of Main Belt Asteroids". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 759 (1): 5. arXiv:1209.5794. Bibcode:2012ApJ...759L...8M. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/759/1/L8. Retrieved 15 December 2017.
  12. ^ a b c Behrend, Raoul. "Asteroids and comets rotation curves – (1309) Hyperborea". Geneva Observatory. Retrieved 15 December 2017.
  13. ^ a b Oliver, Robert Lemke; Shipley, Heath; Ditteon, Richard (October 2008). "Asteroid Lightcurve Analysis at the Oakley Southern Sky Observatory: 2008 March". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 35 (4): 149–150. Bibcode:2008MPBu...35..149O. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 15 December 2017.
  14. ^ a b Apostolovska, Gordana; Ivanova, Violeta; Borisov, Galin (June 2004). "Lightcurves and rotational periods of 1474 Beira, 1309 Hyperborea, and 2525 O'Steen". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 31 (2): 44–45. Bibcode:2004MPBu...31...44A. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 15 December 2017.
  15. ^ a b c Veres, Peter; Jedicke, Robert; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Denneau, Larry; Granvik, Mikael; Bolin, Bryce; et al. (November 2015). "Absolute magnitudes and slope parameters for 250,000 asteroids observed by Pan-STARRS PS1 - Preliminary results". Icarus. 261: 34–47. arXiv:1506.00762. Bibcode:2015Icar..261...34V. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2015.08.007. Retrieved 15 December 2017.
  16. ^ a b "1309 Hyperborea (1931 TO)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 15 December 2017.

External links[edit]