From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
|Centuries:||1st century – 2nd century – 3rd century|
|Decades:||100s 110s 120s – 130s – 140s 150s 160s|
|Years:||130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139|
|Categories:||Births – Deaths – Architecture
Establishments – Disestablishments
This is a list of events occurring in the 130s, ordered by year.
- A law is passed in Rome banning the execution of slaves without a trial.
- The Temple of Olympian Zeus is completed at Athens.
- Emperor Hadrian visits the cities Petra and Gerasa (Jerash).
- A Triumphal Arch for Hadrian is built in Gerasa.
- Canopus, Hadrian's Villa, Tivoli, Italy, is started to be built.
- The Hadrian's Gate in Antalya (Turkey) is constructed, Hadrian visits the city.
- Huviska becomes king of the Kushan Empire in India.
- The Scythian king Rudradaman I reconquers from the Andhra the lands annexed by Gautamiputra.
- Basra becomes the capital of Arabia.
Arts and sciences
- Claudius Ptolemaeus tabulates angles of refraction for several media.
- The Antinous Mondragone is sculpted.
- c. 130–138 – Hadrian Hunting Boar and Sacrificing to Apollo, sculptural reliefs on the Arch of Constantine, Rome, are made.
- c. 130–138 – Antinous, from Hadrian's Villa at Tivoli, Italy, is made. It is now kept at Museo Gregoriano Egizio, Rome.
- Emperor Hadrian builds the city Aelia Capitolina on the location of Jerusalem.
- The Praetor's Edict is definitively codifed by Salvius Julianus on Hadrian's orders. This change means that senatorial decrees become a mere confirmation of the imperial speech (oratio principis) which initiated them.
- Reorganization of the Imperial Council: Central administration is reinforced, and administrative positions are entrusted to Knights according to a very strict hierarchy. Under the reorganization, the Roman Senate is excluded from controlling the business of state.
- Hadrian restores the monarchist policy of Claudius and Domitian. The equestrian order is given full legal status and attains the second order of the state.
- Italy is divided into legal districts managed by consuls, a direct blow to the power and prestige of the Senate.
- Edict of Hadrian prohibiting the practice of circumcision. Additionally, Hadrian prohibits public reading of the Torah under penalty of death, as well as observance of festivals and the Sabbath, the teaching of Judaic Law, and the ordination of rabbis.
- The Temple of Olympian Zeus (Athens) is completed using Cossutius' design.
- The messianic, charismatic Jewish leader Simon bar Kokhba starts a war of liberation for Judea (Bar Kokhba revolt) against the Romans, which is eventually crushed (in 135) by emperor Hadrian. Rabbi Akiva is supportive of the rebellion.
- The legion X Fretensis must evacuate Jerusalem, returning to Caesarea. The Jews enter the city and re-establish their system of sacrifices. They strike coins to celebrate their independence, which would last for only 30 months. The legion XXII Deiotariana, which advanced from Egypt, is completely destroyed.
- Merchants in Britain build structures outside the forts of Hadrian's Wall and offer goods and services (including brothels) to Roman soldiers, who receive salaries in a region that otherwise has virtually no ready money.
- Construction begins on the Mausoleum of Hadrian in Rome, today known as Castel Sant'Angelo.
- Change of era name from Yongjian (7th year) to Yangjia of the Chinese Han Dynasty.
Arts and sciences
- Chinese scientist Zhang Heng invents the first seismometer for determining the exact cardinal direction of earthquakes hundreds of miles away; the device employs a series of complex gears around a central swinging pendulum.
- Sextus Julius Severus, governor of Britain, is sent to Judea (from 136 renamed Syria Palaestina) to quell a revolt.
- A law improving the lot of free workers is passed in Rome.
- Arrianus, Roman governor of Cappadocia, repulses an attack of the Alani, a nomadic tribe from southeastern Russia.
- Sextus Julius Severus, governor of Judea, begins in the summer a campaign against the Jewish rebel strongholds in the mountains.
- The Romans retake Jerusalem. The largely destroyed city is renamed Aelia Capitolina.
Arts and sciences
- A Jewish diaspora begins as emperor Hadrian bars Jews from Jerusalem and has survivors of the massacre dispersed across the Roman Empire. Many join Mediterranean ports.
- Jerusalem is renamed Colonia Aelia Capitolina, in honor of Hadrian. Legio VI Ferrata rebuilds the legionary fortress in the city and constructs a Roman temple at Golgotha.
- An altar to Jupiter is erected on the site of the Temple in Jerusalem.
- Canopus, Hadrian's Villa, Tivoli, Italy, is finished.
- Last (4th) year of Yangjia era of the Chinese Han Dynasty.
Arts and sciences
- The war against the Suebi begins. They will be defeated by the senator Tiberius Haterius Nepos Atinas, governor of Pannonia, in 138.
- Emperor Hadrian chases the Jews from Galilee and receives a triumphal arch near Scythopolis.
- The Roman province of Iudaea (plus Galilee) becomes Syria Palaestina, the first use of the name Palestine as a designation for Judea.
- Hadrian dictates his memoirs at his villa near Tivoli (Tibur) outside Rome.
- Hadrian uncovers a new conspiracy among certain senators. He adopts Lucius Ceionius Commodus as his heir.
- First year of Yonghe era of the Chinese Han Dynasty.
- Pope Hyginus succeeds Pope Telesphorus as the ninth pope.
- Change of Patriarch of Constantinople from Patriarch Eleutherius to Patriarch Felix.
- Tax laws are passed for trade in Palmyra. The caravan city grows rich by importing rare products from the Persian Gulf, and by exporting items manufactured by the Mediterranean world to the East.
- February 25 – Emperor Hadrian makes Antoninus Pius his successor, on condition that he adopts Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus.
- July 10 – Hadrian dies after a heart failure at Baiae, he is buried at Rome in the Gardens of Domitia beside his wife, Vibia Sabina.
- Antoninus Pius succeeds Hadrian as Roman Emperor and asks the Senate to confer divine honors for Hadrian.
- Construction begins on the Theater of Philadelphia (Amman).
- Hadrian's Villa, Tivoli, Italy, is finished.
- The silver content of the Roman denarius falls to 75 percent under emperor Antoninus Pius, down from 87 percent under the reign of Hadrian.
- The Tomb of Hadrian in Rome is completed, emperor Antoninus Pius cremates the body of Hadrian and placed his ashes together with that of his wife Vibia Sabina and his adopted son, Lucius Aelius in the mausoleum.
- Marcus Aurelius is named Caesar. He marries Faustina the Younger, daughter of Antoninus Pius.
- Antoninus Augustus Pius and Caius Bruttius Praesens become Roman Consuls.
- Hadrian, Roman Emperor