1313 Berna

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1313 Berna
Discovery [1]
Discovered by S. Arend
Discovery site Uccle – Belgium
Discovery date 24 August 1933
Designations
MPC designation 1313 Berna
Named after
Bern
(capital city)[2]
1933 QG · 1926 EA
A911 OA
main-belt · Eunomia[3]
Orbital characteristics[1]
Epoch 31 July 2016 (JD 2457600.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc 82.32 yr (30067 days)
Aphelion 3.2086 AU (480.00 Gm)
Perihelion 2.1037 AU (314.71 Gm)
2.6561 AU (397.35 Gm)
Eccentricity 0.20799
4.33 yr (1581.1 d)
14.563°
0° 13m 39.648s / day
Inclination 12.534°
298.35°
99.224°
Known satellites 1 (see 2nd infobox)[a]
Earth MOID 1.15283 AU (172.461 Gm)
Jupiter MOID 2.35756 AU (352.686 Gm)
Jupiter Tisserand parameter 3.323
Physical characteristics
Dimensions 14.27±0.36 km[4]
13.504±0.311 km[5]
13.3±1.4 km[6]
13.12±2.44 km[7]
13.88 km (calculated)[3]
13.93±0.64 km[8]
Mass (2.25±2.00)×1015 kg[8]
Mean density
1.21±0.14[8] g/cm3
25.46 h (1.061 d)[1][6][9][10]
25.464 h[11]
6 h[10]
25.4±0.3 h[10]
0.169±0.009[4]
0.1845±0.0196[5]
0.212±0.076[6]
0.245±0.158[7]
0.21 (assumed)[3]
S[3]
11.6

1313 Berna, provisional designation 1933 QG, is a stony, binary[a] asteroid from the middle region of the asteroid belt, about 14 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered by Belgian astronomer Sylvain Arend at the Royal Observatory of Belgium in Uccle, on 24 August 1933.[12]

The asteroid is a member of the Eunomia family, a prominent group of stony S-type asteroids and the largest family in the intermediate main-belt. It orbits the Sun at a distance of 2.1–3.2 AU once every 4 years and 4 months (1,581 days). Its orbit shows a relatively high eccentricity of 0.21 and is notably tilted by 13 degrees to the plane of the ecliptic. It has a rotation period of 25.46 hours and an albedo between 0.17 and 0.25, according to the collected observations from the space-based satellites Akari, WISE, and Spitzer.[4][5][6][7]

S/2004 (1313) 1
Discovery [a]
Discovered by R. Behrend, R. Roy
S. Sposetti
Discovery date 6 February 2004
Light-curve
Orbital characteristics
25 km
25.464±0.001 h[6][9]
30 mas (maximum)
Satellite of 1313 Berna
Physical characteristics
Dimensions 8.37 km[13]
Δ0.51 fainter than prim.
12.8–13.0

In 2004, a satellite orbiting the asteroid was discovered. The moon, designated S/2004 (1313) 1, measures about 11 kilometers in diameter and orbits Berna at a distance of 35 kilometer once every 25 hours and 28 minutes. Since the lightcurve is synchronized with the eclipse events, at least one body of the binary system rotates synchronously with the orbital motion. It was identified based on light-curve observations taken in February 2004 by several astronomers, including Raoul Behrend from the Geneva Observatory, Stefano Sposetti, R. Roy and others.[a][9] Although the IAUC was released on 23 February 2004, the announcement was already made on 12 February 2004. There are several hundreds of asteroids known to have satellites (also see Category:Binary asteroids).[14]

The minor planet was named after the Swiss capital city of Bern. The name was proposed by Sigmund Mauderli (1876–1962), astronomer and director of the Astronomical Institute at the University of Bern, after whom 1748 Mauderli is named. He computed the definitive orbit of the body, and also insisted to rename the minor planet to its current name, after it had been originally published as "Bernia".[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d International Astronomical Union Circular (No.8292), 23 February 2004 for (1313) BERNA:

    "Photometric observations obtained of the minor planet (1313) on eight nights during Feb. 6-16 show a lightcurve of amplitude 0.25 mag and suggest that this is a binary system with an orbital period of 1.061 +/- 0.005 days, showing mutual eclipses and/or occultations near both rotational lightcurve minima with a duration of about 0.09 day and depth about 0.7 mag, the first being centered on Feb. 7.85 UT. The regular-appearing lightcurve is synchronized with the eclipse events, indicating that at least one of the two bodies is elongated and rotates synchronously with the orbital motion; the sharp eclipse/occultation events indicate that both components have approximately the same size. The maximum orbital separation observed from earth would be about 0".03."

    Reported by R. Behrend, Geneva Observatory, on behalf of R. Roy, S. Sposetti, N. Waelchli, D. Pray, N. Berger, C. Demeautis, D.Matter, R. Durkee, A. Klotz, D. Starkey, and V. Cotrez)
  1. ^ a b c "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 1313 Berna (1933 QG)" (2015-10-14 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 27 April 2016. 
  2. ^ a b Schmadel, Lutz D. (2003). Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (1313) Berna. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 107. ISBN 978-3-540-29925-7. Retrieved 24 November 2015. 
  3. ^ a b c d "LCDB Data for (1313) Berna". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 24 November 2015. 
  4. ^ a b c Usui, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Müller, Thomas G.; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ootsubo, Takafumi; et al. (October 2011). "Asteroid Catalog Using Akari: AKARI/IRC Mid-Infrared Asteroid Survey". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 63 (5): 1117–1138. Bibcode:2011PASJ...63.1117U. doi:10.1093/pasj/63.5.1117. Retrieved 24 November 2015. 
  5. ^ a b c Mainzer, A.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; Hand, E.; Bauer, J.; Tholen, D.; et al. (November 2011). "NEOWISE Studies of Spectrophotometrically Classified Asteroids: Preliminary Results". The Astrophysical Journal. 741 (2): 25. arXiv:1109.6407free to read. Bibcode:2011ApJ...741...90M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/741/2/90. Retrieved 24 November 2015. 
  6. ^ a b c d e Marchis, F.; Enriquez, J. E.; Emery, J. P.; Mueller, M.; Baek, M.; Pollock, J.; et al. (November 2012). "Multiple asteroid systems: Dimensions and thermal properties from Spitzer Space Telescope and ground-based observations". Icarus. 221 (2): 1130–1161. arXiv:1604.05384free to read. Bibcode:2012Icar..221.1130M. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2012.09.013. Retrieved 24 November 2015. 
  7. ^ a b c Masiero, Joseph R.; Mainzer, A. K.; Grav, T.; Bauer, J. M.; Cutri, R. M.; Nugent, C.; et al. (November 2012). "Preliminary Analysis of WISE/NEOWISE 3-Band Cryogenic and Post-cryogenic Observations of Main Belt Asteroids". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 759 (1): 5. arXiv:1209.5794free to read. Bibcode:2012ApJ...759L...8M. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/759/1/L8. Retrieved 24 November 2015. 
  8. ^ a b c Carry, B. (December 2012). "Density of asteroids". Planetary and Space Science. 73 (1): 98–118. arXiv:1203.4336free to read. Bibcode:2012P&SS...73...98C. doi:10.1016/j.pss.2012.03.009. Retrieved 24 November 2015. 
  9. ^ a b c Behrend, R.; Roy, R.; Sposetti, S.; Waelchli, N.; Pray, D.; Berger, N.; et al. (February 2004). "(1313) Berna". IAU Circ. Bibcode:2004IAUC.8292....3B. Retrieved 24 November 2015. 
  10. ^ a b c Behrend, Raoul. "Asteroids and comets rotation curves – (1313) Berna". Geneva Observatory. Retrieved 24 November 2015. 
  11. ^ Behrend, R.; Bernasconi, L.; Roy, R.; Klotz, A.; Colas, F.; Antonini, P.; et al. (February 2006). "Four new binary minor planets: (854) Frostia, (1089) Tama, (1313) Berna, (4492) Debussy". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 446 (3): 1177–1184(A&AHomepage). Bibcode:2006A&A...446.1177B. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20053709. Retrieved 24 November 2015. 
  12. ^ "1313 Berna (1933 QG)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 24 November 2015. 
  13. ^ Johnston, Robert. "(131) Berna". johnstonsarchive.net. Retrieved 28 May 2015. 
  14. ^ Wm. Robert Johnston (1 November 2015). "Asteroids with Satellites". Johnston's Archive. Retrieved 24 November 2015. 

External links[edit]