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|1338 by topic|
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|Births – Deaths|
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|Establishments – Disestablishments|
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- Hundred Years' War: Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor appoints Edward III of England as a vicar-general of the Holy Roman Empire. Louis supports Edward's claim to the French throne, under the terms of the Treaty of Koblenz.
- Philip VI of France besieges Guienne in Southwest France, and his navy attacks Portsmouth in England.
- Ashikaga Takauji is granted the title of Shogun by the emperor of Japan, starting the Ashikaga shogunate.
- Nicomedia is captured by the Ottoman Empire.
- January 13 – Jeong Mong-ju, Korean civil minister, diplomat and scholar (d. 1392)
- January 21 – Charles V of France (d. 1380)
- February 3 – Joanna of Bourbon, queen consort of France (d. 1378)
- March 23 – Emperor Go-Kōgon of Japan, Northern Court emperor during a conflict between two imperial lines (d. 1374)
- October 5 – Alexios III of Trebizond (d. 1390)
- November 29 – Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence (d. 1368)
- date unknown
- April 8 – Stephen Gravesend, Bishop of London
- April 24 – Theodore I, Marquess of Montferrat (b. c. 1270)
- May – John Wishart, Scottish bishop
- May 5 – Prince Tsunenaga, son of the Japanese Emperor (b. 1324)
- May 23 – Alice de Warenne, Countess of Arundel, English noble (b. 1287)
- June 10 – Kitabatake Akiie, Japanese governor (b. 1318; d. in battle)
- July – Muhammad Khan, Persian monarch
- August 4 – Thomas of Brotherton, 1st Earl of Norfolk (b. 1300)
- August 17 – Nitta Yoshisada, Japanese samurai (b. 1301; d. in battle)
- August 22 – William II, Duke of Athens (b. 1312)
- December 21 – Thomas Hemenhale, Bishop of Worcester
- date unknown
- probable – Prince Narinaga, Japanese Shogun (b. 1325)