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Year 1349 (MCCCIL) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
- January 9 – The Jewish population of Basel, Switzerland is rounded up and incinerated, believed by the residents to be the cause of the ongoing Black Death.
- January 22 – An earthquake affects L'Aquila in southern Italy with a maximum Mercalli intensity of X (Extreme), causing severe damage, and leaving 2,000 dead.
- February 14 – Strasbourg massacre: roughly 2,000 Jews are burned to death, believed by the residents to be the cause of the Black Death.
- March 21 – Erfurt massacre: a pogram in which the Jewish community of Erfurt (Germany) is murdered and expelled, believed by the residents to be the cause of the Black Death.
- March 27 – An earthquake in England strikes Meaux Abbey.
- May – The Black Death ceases in Ireland.
- May 28 – In Breslau, Silesia, 60 Jews are murdered, following a disastrous fire which destroys part of the city.
- August 24 – The Black Death breaks out in Elbing (Poland).
- September 9 – An earthquake in Rome causes extensive damage, including the collapse of the southern exterior facade of the Colosseum.
- October 20 – Pope Clement VI publishes a papal bull that condemns the Flagellants.
- November 8 – Ibn Battuta arrives in Fez, Morocco.
- November 17 – Pope Clement VI annuls the marriage of William Montacute, 2nd Earl of Salisbury, and Joan of Kent, on the grounds of her prior marriage to Thomas Holland, 1st Earl of Kent.
- December 22 – The rise of Alexios III of Trebizond to the throne ends the Trapezuntine Civil Wars.