From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
- 1 Events
- 1.1 1350
- 1.2 1351
- 1.3 1352
- 1.4 1353
- 1.5 1354
- 1.6 1355
- 1.7 1356
- 1.8 1357
- 1.9 1358
- 1.10 1359
- 2 Significant people
- 3 Births
- 4 Deaths
- 5 References
- January 9 – Giovanni II Valente becomes Doge of Genoa.
- May 23 – A number of supporters of William V, Count of Holland, in his power struggle with his mother Margaret I, Countess of Holland, found the Cod League.
- August 29 – Battle of Les Espagnols sur Mer off Winchelsea: An English fleet personally commanded by King Edward III defeats a Castilian fleet.
- September 5 – Conservative noblemen in the County of Holland found the Hook League.
- September (unknown date) The first pestilence dies out.
- November 17 – To pay for the expenses of the revived war with the Republic of Venice, the Republic of Genoa has to subscribe a loan at an interest rate of 10%, from an association of creditors known as the Compera imposita per gerra Venetorum.
- Hayam Wuruk becomes ruler of the Majapahit Empire.
- The Black Death first appears in Scotland.
- The castle of Rapperswil is largely destroyed by Rudolf Brun, mayor of the city of Zürich.
- The national law of Magnus Erikssons landslag is introduced in Sweden.
- January 14 – Edward III of England institutes the Treason Act of 1351, defining treason in English law. It is currently one of the earliest statues still in force under English law.
- March 26 – War of the Breton Succession – Combat of the Thirty: Thirty chosen knights each, from the Kingdoms of France and England, fight to determine who will rule the Duchy of Brittany; a Franco-Breton victory is assured by the squire Guillaume de Montauban.
- April 8 – Hundred Years' War: At the Battle of Taillebourg in Gascony, the French are defeated by the English.
- May 1 – Zürich joins the Swiss Confederation.
- King Ramathibodi I ascends the throne in Ayutthaya (now Thailand). He begins to propagate Theravada Buddhism as the state religion.
- King Gongmin ascends the throne in Goryeo.
- Emperor Go-Kōgon of Japan succeeds Emperor Sukō, making them the third and fourth of the Northern Ashikaga Pretenders, respectively.
- The Statute of Laborers is enacted by the Parliament of England, to deal with a labor shortage caused by the Black Death.
- Vantaa, Finland is first mentioned.
- Firuz Tughlaq succeeds Mohammad Tughlaq, as Sultan of Delhi.
- The Mongolian-run Yuan dynasty of China is permanently weakened by an uprising, known as the Red Turban Rebellion.
- The Samma Dynasty in Sindh (now part of Pakistan) breaks away from the Delhi Sultanate.
- The Turks cross the Dardanelles into Europe for the first time.
- June 4 – Glarus joins the Swiss Confederation.
- June 27 – Zug joins the Swiss Confederation.
- October – Fighting as allies of John VI Kantakouzenos in the Byzantine civil war of 1352–57, the Ottoman beylik scores its first victory on European soil at the Battle of Demotika, against the Serbs.
- December 18 – Pope Innocent VI succeeds Pope Clement VI as the 199th pope.
- Moroccan traveller Ibn Battuta reports the existence of the ngoni and balafon instruments, at the court of Mansa Musa.
- The Sultanate of Bengal is formed after the realms of Satgaon, Lakhnauti and Sonargaon are united under Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah.
- Coming from Hungary, the noble Vlach Dragoş becomes the first voivode of Moldova, being seen as the founder of this principality (some scholars place this moment as early as 1345).
- Following the death of his father Basarab, Nicholas Alexander becomes voivode of Wallachia, after being co-ruler for about 8 years.
- Corpus Christi College is founded as a College of the University of Cambridge, by the Guilds of Corpus Christi and the Blessed Virgin Mary.
- Süleyman Pasha, the son of the Ottoman bey, crosses the Bosphorus and seizes Çimpe Castle on the Gallipoli Peninsula, the first European territory held by the Ottoman Empire.
- Lionel of Antwerp marries Elizabeth, daughter of William de Burgh, 3rd Earl of Ulster.
- William de Ashlee becomes Rector of Maids Moreton, England.
- The town of Biel/Bienne, Switzerland, finalizes its alliance with the city of Bern.
- Reginald de Cobham, 1st Baron Cobham becomes a Companion of the Most Noble Order of the Garter of England.
- The Earldom of Kent becomes extinct.
- The Metropolitan of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Churchdoes not exist yet; the Metropolitan of Halych begins to relocate back to Kiev, after having moved to Halych in 1299. Thereafter, the Metropolitan will hold the title of Metropolitan of Kiev-Halych and All Rus.
- After years of begging and being a Buddhist monk, the penniless Chinese peasant Zhu Yuanzhang joins the Red Turban Rebellion against the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty of China; he will later become the first emperor of the Ming dynasty.
- The Moroccan traveler Ibn Battuta makes the first recorded visit to Timbuktu and Kabara, when returning from a stay in the capital of the Mali Empire.
- The Decameron is finished by Giovanni Boccaccio.
- Early in the year – Ibn Battuta returns from his travels at the command of Abu Inan Faris, sultan of Morocco, who appoints a scribe to write an account of the adventures.
- February 12 – The Treaty of Stralsund settles border disputes between the duchies of Mecklenburg and Pomerania.
- October 8 – Cola di Rienzo, self-proclaimed "tribune" of Rome, is killed by an angry mob.
- December 10 – The reign of John VI Kantakouzenos as Byzantine Emperor is ended, after John V Palaiologos retakes Constantinople and is restored as sole emperor.
- After 24 years of struggling for independence, since the Battle of Posada (1330), won against Hungarians by his father, Nicholas Alexander of Wallachia becomes vassal to Hungarian king Louis I.
- The Ottoman Turks capture the cities of Kallipolis and Didymoteicho from the Byzantine Empire.
- The Lao kingdom of Lan Xang is established by Fa Ngum.
- Sahab-ud-Din becomes Sultan of Kashmir.
- Assassins strike down Sultan Hassan, and his body is never returned.
- January 7 – King Alphonso IV of Portugal sends three men to kill Ines de Castro, beloved of his son Prince Pedro; Pedro revolts and incites a civil war.
- February 10 – The St. Scholastica's Day riot breaks out in Oxford, England, leaving 63 scholars and perhaps 30 locals dead in two days.
- April – Philip II of Taranto marries Maria of Calabria, daughter of Charles, Duke of Calabria, and Mary of Valois.
- April 5 – Charles IV is crowned emperor in Rome.
- April 18 – In Venice, the Council of Ten beheads Doge Marin Falier, for conspiring to kill them.
- August – Battle of Nesbit Moor: The Scottish army decisively defeats the English.
- September 1 – Tvrtko I writes in castro nostro Vizoka vocatum, from old town Visoki.
- January 20 – Edward Balliol surrenders his title as King of Scotland, to Edward III of England.
- September 19 Hundred Years' War – Battle of Poitiers: The English, commanded by Edward, the Black Prince, defeat the French, capturing King John II of France.
- October 17 – Erik XII proclaims himself king of Sweden, in opposition to his father, King Magnus IV. Thus begins a civil war in Sweden between father and son, which will last until Erik's death in 1359.
- October 18 (St Luke's Day) – The Basel earthquake affects northern Switzerland, with a maximum MSK intensity of IX–X (Destructive–Devastating), leaving around 1,000 dead.
- December 25 – Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor, promulgates the Golden Bull, a constitution for his empire.
- The city of Lwów is granted Magdeburg rights by Casimir III of Poland.
- The majority of the Great Pyramid of Giza's limestone casing stones are removed by Bahri Sultan An-Nasir Nasir-ad-Din al-Hasan, to build fortresses and mosques in the nearby city of Cairo, leaving the first of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World in the step-stone condition in which it remains today.
- Burnt Candlemas: Edward III of England burns down every town and village in Lothian, Scotland.
- The Hanseatic League, a trading alliance between many cities in northern Europe, is officially founded.
- Ghazan II replaces Anushirwan, as ruler of the Ilkhanate in Persia.
- Zhu Yuanzhang, one of the leaders in the Red Turban Rebellion, captures the city of Nanjing from the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty in China; from then on it becomes his base of power, and the capital of a new dynasty he will establish in 1368, the Ming dynasty.
- The Castelvecchio Bridge in Verona is probably completed this year; its main span of 48.7 m is the world's longest arch at this time.
- April 28 – Erik Magnusson is recognized as king of most of Sweden, in opposition to his father, King Magnus.
- May 28 – Peter I becomes King of Portugal, after the death of his father, Alfonso IV.
- July 9 – Charles Bridge in Prague is founded.
- King David II of Scotland is released by the English, in return for a ransom.
- Berdibek succeeds Jani Beg, as Khan of the Blue Horde.
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- Rao Kanhadev becomes Rathore ruler of Marwar (now part of India).
- Influenza is first identified as a disease.
- The first public exhibition of the Shroud of Turin is recorded.
- The Blue Horde unseats Ghazan II as the ruler of the Il-Khanate, and appoints their own governor.
- The Wat Phra Sri Rattana Mahathat (Famous Wat Yai) Temple is constructed in Phitsanulok, Thailand.
- In France, the States-General passes Étienne Marcel's Great Ordinance in an attempt to impose limits on the monarchy, in particular in fiscal and monetary matters.
- February 18 – Treaty of Zadar, between Louis I of Hungary/Croatia and the Republic of Venice: The Venetians lose influence over their former Dalmatian holdings.
- March 16 – King Haakon VI of Norway designates the city of Skien as a city with trading privileges, making it the 6th town with city status in the Norway.
- May 28 Hundred Years' War – The Jacquerie: A peasant rebellion begins in France, which consumes the Beauvais, and allies with Étienne Marcel's seizure of Paris.
- June 27 – The Republic of Ragusa is founded.
- July 10 – Battle of Mello: The Jacquerie rebellion is defeated by a coalition of nobles, led by Charles II of Navarre.
- Estimation: Nanjing in Mongolian China becomes the largest city of the world, taking the lead from Hangzhou in Mongolian China.
- Mubarazuddin Muhammad, leader of the Arab Muzaffarid tribe, expels the Blue Horde from Ilkhanate territory in Persia. The Muzaffarid then release control of the Il-Khanate, after being marched on by the Mongol Jalayirid tribe, ruled by Shaikh Uvais. Shaikh Uvais becomes the new Il-Khan. The Ilkhanate is effectively now disbanded, and replaced by the Jalayirid dynasty of Persia.
- Shah Shuja overthrows his father, Mubarazuddin Muhammad, as leader of the Muzaffarid tribe.
- Mohammed Shah I becomes Bahmani Sultan of Deccan (now part of southern India) after the death of Sultan Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah.
- Muhammad II as Said becomes ruler of the Marinid Dynasty in present-day Morocco, after the assassination of Abu Inan Faris.
- May 25 – The French States-General repudiates the terms of the Second Treaty of London, signed earlier in the year between England and France.
- June 21 – Upon the death of Erik Magnusson, his claims to the Swedish throne die with him, and power is restored undivided to his father, King Magnus.
- July 4 – Francesco II Ordelaffi surrenders to the Papal commander, Gil de Albornoz.
- December 19 – The Courts of the Principality of Catalonia are held in Cervera, giving birth to the Deputation the General of Catalonia (Diputació del General de Catalunya), also called Generalitat of Catalonia (Generalitat de Catalunya).
- Murad I (1359–1389) succeeds Orhan I (1326–1359), as sultan of the Ottoman Empire.
- Berlin joins the Hanseatic League.
- Margarete Maultasch, Countess of Tyrol, and her husband, Louis of Bavaria, are absolved from excommunication.
- Abu Salim Ali II overthrows Muhammad II as Said, as ruler of the Merinid Dynasty, in present-day Morocco.
- Bogdan I becomes Prince of Moldavia (now Moldova), after freeing it from Hungarian control. He will be ancestor of the House of Bogdan, who will rule Moldavia for more than 3 centuries.
- The Zayanids under Abu Hamuw II recapture Algeria.
- Shah Mahmud overthrows his brother, Shah Shuja, as leader of the Muzaffarid tribe in Persia.
- Qulpa becomes Khan of the Blue Horde, after the death of Berdi Beg.
- Ismail II overthrows his uncle, Muhammed V, as King of Granada (in present-day Spain).
- (probable date) Battle of Megara: A Christian coalition defeats a Turkish raider fleet.
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- Geography at about.com