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|Births – Deaths|
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|Establishments – Disestablishments|
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|1356 in poetry|
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- January 20 – Edward Balliol surrenders his title as King of Scotland, to Edward III of England.
- September 19 Hundred Years' War – Battle of Poitiers: The English, commanded by Edward, the Black Prince, defeat the French, capturing King John II of France.
- October 17 – Erik XII proclaims himself king of Sweden, in opposition to his father, King Magnus IV. Thus begins a civil war in Sweden between father and son, which will last until Erik's death in 1359.
- October 18 (St Luke's Day) – The Basel earthquake affects northern Switzerland, with a maximum MSK intensity of IX–X (Destructive–Devastating), leaving around 1,000 dead.
- December 25 – Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor, promulgates the Golden Bull, a constitution for his empire.
- The city of Lwów is granted Magdeburg rights by Casimir III of Poland.
- The majority of the Great Pyramid of Giza's limestone casing stones are removed by Bahri Sultan An-Nasir Nasir-ad-Din al-Hasan, to build fortresses and mosques in the nearby city of Cairo, leaving the first of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World in the step-stone condition in which it remains today.
- Burnt Candlemas: Edward III of England burns down every town and village in Lothian, Scotland.
- The Hanseatic League, a trading alliance between many cities in northern Europe, is officially founded.
- Ghazan II replaces Anushirwan, as ruler of the Ilkhanate in Persia.
- Zhu Yuanzhang, one of the leaders in the Red Turban Rebellion, captures the city of Nanjing from the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty in China; from then on it becomes his base of power, and the capital of a new dynasty he will establish in 1368, the Ming dynasty.
- The Castelvecchio Bridge in Verona is probably completed this year; its main span of 48.7 m is the world's longest arch at this time.
- July 29 – Martin of Aragon (d. 1410)
- date unknown – Robert IV of Artois, Count of Eu (d. 1387)
- June 23 – Margaret II, Countess of Hainaut (b. 1311)
- September 19 (killed at the Battle of Poitiers):
- date unknown