13th Sustainment Command (Expeditionary)
|13th Sustainment Command (Expeditionary)|
13th ESC shoulder sleeve insignia
|Active||1965 – present|
|Branch||United States Army|
|Type||Sustainment command (expeditionary)|
|Motto(s)||Service to the Soldier|
|Engagements||Operation Iraqi Freedom
*Transition of Iraq
|LTG Richard Hack|
|Johnnie E. Wilson
Billy K. Solomon
James E. Chambers
The 13th Sustainment Command (Expeditionary)—the "Lucky 13th"—is a U.S. Army modular sustainment command which serves as a forward presence for expeditionary operations for a theater, or in support of a regional combatant commander. Expeditionary sustainment commands (ESC), such as the 13th, synchronize distribution of supplies and services within their operational areas and provides distribution oversight. Formed at Fort Hood, Texas when the 1st Logistics Command deployed to Vietnam, the organization then known the 13th Support Brigade was initially responsible for the training of technical services units to assume combat service support missions in Southeast Asia.
As the Army redefined the missions of its logistics forces in response to building towards a 16-division Army, it was designated a corps support command (COSCOM). In 1992 the 13th COSCOM deployed to Somalia as part of Operation Restore Hope where for the first time a COSCOM was given the mission to provide theater-level support in a major U.S. operation. The 13th ESC has deployed to Iraq and served as the logistics command for hurricane relief efforts in support of the American people after hurricanes Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Rita devastated the Gulf Coast.
- 1 Organization
- 2 Earthquake relief, Managua, Nicaragua
- 3 Desert Storm
- 4 Operation Restore Hope
- 5 Humanitarian aid and peacekeeping
- 6 Operation Iraqi Freedom
- 7 Hurricane Katrina
- 8 Operation Enduring Freedom
- 9 Current activities
- 10 Previous leaders
- 11 External links
- 12 References
The 13th Sustainment Command (Expeditionary) was constituted on 11 August 1965 in the Regular Army, and activated 24 September 1965 at Fort Hood, Texas as the 13th Support Brigade. The 13th Support Brigade was formed as the nation's involvement in Vietnam increased, and was tasked with the training of technical services units to assume combat service support missions in Southeast Asia. With reorganization from the "technical service" concept to the "combat service to the Army" concept, functional training of units was decentralized in the Continental Army Command to post, camp and station level.
The command continued to evolve due to increased missions and changing roles. Along with similar units, it was redesignated as 13th Corps Support Command (COSCOM) on 21 June 1975, and then the 13th Support Command (Corps) on 16 October 1980. As part of Army Transformation, it was reflagged to its current configuration as the 13th Sustainment Command (Expeditionary) during a formal ceremony on 23 February 2006.
The crest was originally approved for the 13th Support Brigade on 11 August 1966, and re-designated for the 13th Corps Support Command, effective 13 May 1975. The 13th COSCOM retained the crest, shoulder patch and lineage as it redesignated to a sustainment command.
The octagon reinforced by the saltire refers to the unit's mission of supporting the combat, combat support and combat service support organizations of the Corps. Its star symbolizes the many far reaching missions of the command, and having thirteen points, the star also alludes to its numerical designation. The octagon is a symbol of regeneration; it alludes to the combat service support functions of the unit as constantly renewing the strength and vigor of the Corps.
Yellow (substituted for Quartermaster buff) alludes to the supply and service functions of the command. Scarlet (substituted for Ordnance crimson and Transportation brick red) alludes to the maintenance and transportation functions of the command. The blue represents other support rendered by the command. This combination identifies the colors which are used in the flags of combat service support organizations.
Earthquake relief, Managua, Nicaragua
Soldiers of the 13th ESC first deployed as the 13th Support Brigade in response to the Managua earthquake, where its soldiers served at Camp Christine, Managua, Nicaragua, assisting in disaster relief from 23 December 1972 to 19 January 1973. Units of the 13th deployed in Nicaragua included:
- 21st Evacuation Hospital
- 255th Medical Detachment
- 528th Transportation Company (-)[clarification needed]
Though the headquarters did not deploy to Desert Shield and Desert Storm, units from the 13th COSCOM began to deploy in the fall of 1990 to Saudi Arabia to provide combat support and combat service support during the Gulf War. During Operation Desert Calm and Operation Provide Comfort, soldiers of the 13th ESC deployed to the Persian Gulf area. In 1992, 13th COSCOM soldiers deployed to Cuba to aid Haitian refugees during Operation Safe Harbor, and later assisted victims of Hurricane Andrew in Florida. 13th ESC soldiers led the way as III Corps units deployed to Kuwait to train and ensure the peace in support of Operation Intrinsic Action.
Operation Restore Hope
In 1992, the U.S. Central Command established Unified Task Force Somalia (UNITAF) in light of the worsening situation in Somalia and 13th COSCOM was called to duty. 13th COSCOM Commander Brig. Gen. Billy K. Solomon deployed along with a portion of the 13th COSCOM headquarters to Mogadishu to serve as the nucleus of Joint Task Force Support Command, the first time where a COSCOM was given the mission to provide theater-level support. Soldiers of the Lucky 13th returned in May 1993.
Their major units included:
- 593d Corps Support Group (Fort Lewis)
- 36th Engineer Group (Fort Benning)
- 7th Transportation Group (Fort Eustis)
- 62d Medical Group (Fort Lewis)
Humanitarian aid and peacekeeping
From October through December 1995, 13th COSCOM soldiers provided multifunctional logistical support to Army forces supporting Operation Vigilant Warrior in Kuwait. Units of the 13th COSCOM conducted humanitarian and/or peacekeeping missions in Cuba as part of Operation Sea Signal V, Haiti Operation Uphold Democracy, Honduras JTF-B, Operation Strong Support, and were a part of Stabilization Force (SFOR) 6 in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The 13th COSCOM also deployed their engineers to Thule, Greenland, for additional support missions.
Soldiers from the command have assisted in removing snow in Massachusetts, aiding flood victims in Louisiana, processing refugees in Arkansas, fighting forest fires in Montana, assisting earthquake victims in Mexico or helping flood victims in Curio, Texas.
Operation Iraqi Freedom
Operation Iraqi Freedom again saw 13th COSCOM units deployed, including 64th Corps Support Group, directly supporting the 4th Infantry Division. Elements of the 49th Movement Control Battalion have been continuously deployed in the region since 1997 and remain a critical node supporting all U.S. and coalition forces.
13th COSCOM first deployed a medical evacuation headquarters and an air evacuation company on 12 February 2003, to Kuwait. Those units were to reposition forces as required to support the president’s global war on terrorism. Eventually, the 13th COSCOM deployed both of its local Brigades in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom while the headquarters and separate units supported the families at Fort Hood, Texas.
In August 2003 deployment notification came for the soldiers of the 13th COSCOM headquarters to participate in the ongoing operations in Iraq. In preparation for its first major deployment since Somalia, the 13th COSCOM colors were cased in a deployment and retreat ceremony held on the afternoon of 18 December 2004, at Sadowski Field on Fort Hood.
On 31 January 2004, the 13th COSCOM completed a transfer of authority with the 3rd Corps Support Command (COSCOM) at Logistics Support Area (LSA) Anaconda in Balad, Iraq, and assumed responsibility to provide logistics support to Combined Joint Task Force 7 in Iraq, later redesignated as the Multi-National Corps Iraq (MNC-I).
Major units serving with the 13th COSCOM for OIF II were:
- Corps Distribution Command (Provisional)
- 172nd Corps Support Group (Broken Arrow, Oklahoma)
- 1st Brigade, 82nd ABN Div(-) (January–April 2004) (Fort Bragg, North Carolina)
- 81st BCT(-) (April–December 2004) (WAARNG)
- 593rd Corps Support Group (Fort Lewis, Washington)
- 167th Corps Support Group (Londonderry, New Hampshire)
- 300th Area Support Group (Fort Lee, Virginia)
On 12 December 2004, the 13th COSCOM transferred authority to the 1st Corps Support Command. During its time at LSA Anaconda, the 13th COSCOM processed 2,000 tons of mail; averaged over 200 convoys a day for a total of 62,000 convoys involving 750,000 vehicles; and was responsible for quality of life improvements for the joint forces. The 13th COSCOM uncased its colors, signifying its return home and the end of its mission, at Fort Hood, Texas, on 21 January 2005.
The 13th, under its new designation as a sustainment command (expeditionary) deployed once again to Logistics Support Area Anaconda in August, 2006. The command provided logistics oversight for the entire Iraq theater, and assumed command and control of seven subordinate brigades, which included:
- 1st Brigade Combat Team, 34th Infantry Division
- 593rd Sustainment Brigade
- 82nd Sustainment Brigade
- 15th Sustainment Brigade
- 45th Sustainment Brigade
- 164th Corps Support Group
- 657th Area Support Group
- 81st HBCT
- 4th Sustainment Brigade
- 507th Corps Support Group
During OIF 06-08, the 13th ESC provided key logistical support to the Iraq War troop surge of 2007, and facilitated the movement and training of the additional 20,000 troops through Camp Buehring, Kuwait. The 13th ESC redeployed to Fort Hood in August, 2007, and quickly started training and preparations for their deployment in support of OIF 09-11.
CAMPAIGN: IRAQI SOVEREIGNTY – 1 January 2009 to 31 August 2010
The command headquarters again deployed to the former LSA Anaconda, now under Air Force control under the redesignation of Joint Base Balad on 17 July 2009, and assumed the mission for theater logistics on 7 August. The 13th ESC was faced with the largest movement of American forces and military equipment in more than 40 years to facilitate a responsible withdrawal from the Iraq theater of operation. Over the course of a year-long deployment, the 13th ESC brought more than $1 billion worth of equipment back into the U.S. Army supply system.
During an average day for the 13th ESC in OIF 09-11, they issued 96,000 cases of bottled water, 1.6 million US gallons (6,100 m3) of fuel, and delivered 137 tons of mail.
Some of the major accomplishments of the 13th ESC during OIF 09-11 included: signing a $31 million contract with a local Iraqi company to conduct container repair, opening the first Iraqi bank on Joint Base Balad, partnering with the Iraqi transportation network to get American trucks off the road, and Operation Clean Sweep, a comprehensive effort to reduce excess throughout the entire area of operation.
Six soldiers in the command were killed in OIF 09-11: PFC Taylor Marks, SGT Earl Werner, SPC Paul Andersen, SPC Joseph Gallegos, SGT William Spencer and MAJ Ronald Culver.
- 15th Sustainment Brigade - TX
- 36th Sustainment Brigade - Texas Army National Guard
- 256th Infantry Brigade Combat Team - Louisiana Army National Guard
- 278th Armored Cavalry Regiment - TN
- 155 Heavy Brigade Combat Team - Mississippi
- 41st Infantry Brigade Combat Team - Oregon Army Nation Guard
- 321st Sustainment Brigade - Louisiana
- 287th Sustainment Brigade - Kansas
- 304th Sustainment Brigade - California
- 96th Sustainment Brigade - Utah
- 90th Sustainment Brigade - Arkansas
- 3rd Sustainment Brigade - Georgia
- 10th Sustainment Brigade - New York
- 16th Sustainment Brigade - Germany
- 224th Sustainment Brigade - California
Deep in the process of deploying and redeploying 13th COSCOM units, key elements of 13th COSCOM supported Joint Task Force Katrina/Rita hurricane relief efforts in the summer of 2005. 13th COSCOM provided 100 million rations, collected human remains with dignity, executed emergency engineering operations, transported, distributed and stored over one billion dollars in humanitarian relief from both non-governmental and federal sources from across the nation.
Numbering nearly 1,000 soldiers at the height of operations, the command and staff of the 13th COSCOM formed Logistics Task Force Lonestar, composed of several different units from the support command. Soldiers representing transportation companies, medical and engineer units, maintenance groups and others worked to bring stability back to the storm-ravaged city of New Orleans and, after Hurricane Rita came ashore, close to Lake Charles, La.
With a humanitarian support mission for the people of New Orleans, the task force performed logistical missions from purifying water to providing engineer support to help clean up the streets in support of the Federal Emergency Management Agency and Joint Task Force Katrina. Working in sometimes difficult conditions, the task force was able to accomplish many tasks during their deployment including offering remedies to supply flow issues and establishing a donation distribution warehouse.
- HHC, 13th COSCOM
- Special Troops Battalion
- 49th Transportation Battalion
- 4th Corps Material Management Center
Operation Enduring Freedom
The 13th ESC command group and portions of HHC deployed to Afghanistan in early December 2011 as augmentees to the NATO Training Mission - Afghanistan. On 4 February 2012, BG Terence Hildner, Commander 13th ESC died of natural causes in Afghanistan.
The 13th COSCOM became the first COSCOM to transform to a sustainment command (expeditionary) and deploy to combat during Operation Iraqi Freedom 06-08.The command’s primary mission is to provide combat support and combat service support in the areas of supply, maintenance, movement control, field services, and general engineering & construction.
At Fort Hood, the 13th ESC currently has the missions of:
- Providing command and control of all assigned and attached units.
- Providing Combat Service Support to Fort Hood units through:
- Direct Support Maintenance to non-divisional units
- General Support maintenance and back up direct support maintenance to the 1st Cavalry Division
- Support to additional installation activities and functions, as directed.
Leveraging Sustainment Organizations in CONUS West duties involve coordination with all Sustainment Brigades, Support Brigades, and Army Field Support Brigades in the Continental United States, West of the Mississippi river.
These brigades are:
- 1st Sustainment Brigade – Fort Riley, Kansas
- 4th Sustainment Brigade – Fort Hood, Texas
- 15th Sustainment Brigade – Fort Bliss, Texas
- 36th Sustainment Brigade – Texas National Guard
- 43rd Sustainment Brigade – Fort Carson, Colorado
- 593rd Sustainment Brigade – Fort Lewis, Washington
- 916th Support Brigade – Fort Irwin, California
- 404th Army Field Support Brigade – Fort Lewis, Washington
- 407th Army Field Support Brigade – Fort Hood, Texas
Currently, the 13th ESC is Fort Hood's third largest unit with a local strength of almost 6,000 soldiers. It is composed of various battalions and detachments:
- COL Orval Q. Matteson
- COL Paul F. Roberts
- COL Thomas E. Wesson
- COL Chris W. Stevens
- COL (MG) William T. McLean
- COL Donald C. Poorman
- COL (MG) Leo A. Brooks, Sr.
- COL Tipton
- COL (BG) William Fedorochko
- COL (GEN) Johnnie E. Wilson
- COL Brown
- COL Stirling
- BG (LTG) Billy K. Solomon
- BG (LTG) Charles S. Mahan, Jr. Jun 1993 - Jun 1995
- BG Thomas R. Dickinson
- BG (LTG) Richard A. Hack 1997 - 1999
- BG (MG) Jeanette K. Edmunds 1999 - 2001
- BG (MG) William M. Lenaers Jul 2001 - Jul 2003
- BG (MG) James E. Chambers Jul 2003 - Jun 2005
- BG (MG) Michael J. Terry Jun 2005 - Sep 2007
- BG Paul L. Wentz Sep 2007 - Aug 2010
- BG Terence Hildner Aug 2010 - died 3 Feb 2012 
- BG (MG) Clark LeMasters, Jr.
- BG (MG) Rodney Fogg
Former sergeants major
- SGM Joseph Cocharan
- SGM John Mitchell
- SGM Paul Quesenberry
- CSM Thomas J. Carruthers
- CSM George W. Layne
- CSM Louis Robison
- CSM Donald Horn
- CSM Joseph R. Bufford, Jr.
- CSM Robert Sullivan
- CSM Pollan
- CSM Emmett Maylone
- CSM Donald W. Tucker
- CSM Joshua Hooper
- CSM Timothy O. Bowers
- CSM Daniel K. Elder
- CSM Terry Fountain
- CSM Mark D. Joseph
- CSM Terry Parham
- CSM Terry Burton
- 13th Sustainment Command (Expeditionary) – official site.
- 13th Support Command Association – Official site for the Association for veterans of the 13th ESC, including members of the former 13th Support Brigade, the 13th COSCOM and the 13th SC(E).
- 13th ESC Memorial Pavilion – Memorial honoring the 106 soldiers of the 13th Sustainment Command killed.
- "Logistic Support". VIETNAM STUDIES. p. 177. Archived from the original on 20 August 2015. Retrieved 1 April 2014.
- Department of the Army Historical Summary: FY 1975, Ch VIII http://www.history.army.mil/books/DAHSUM/1975/ch08.htm
- Joint logistics at the operational level--Where are we at and where are we going?, pg 41 http://cgsc.cdmhost.com/cgi-bin/showfile.exe?CISOROOT=/p4013coll3&CISOPTR=971&filename=972.pdf[dead link]
- "Logistic Support". VIETNAM STUDIES. p. 30. Archived from the original on 6 January 2015. Retrieved 1 April 2014.
- "Lineage and Honors Certificate" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 July 2011.
- Department of the Army Historical Summary: FY 1980, pg 13 http://www.history.army.mil/books/dahsum/1980/ch02.htm#b1
- Mollie Miller (24 February 2006). "13th COSCOM becomes the 13th Sustainment Command". The Killeen Daily Herald.
- "Part II Operation Restore Hope" (PDF). marines.mil. p. 19. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 May 2012.
- "About 13th SC(E): History". Hood.Army.Mil. Retrieved 1 April 2014.
- 13th Sustainment Command Expeditionary Public Affairs (11 August 2009). "13th ESC Takes Charge".
- Mollie Miller (10 September 2005). "Soldiers from 13th COSCOM deploy to storm-ravaged city". The Killeen Daily Herald.
- Captain Ryan T. Tierney (September–October 2006). "13th COSCOM Support of Task Force Katrina". Army Logistician.
- Mollie Miller (3 October 2005). "Final 13th COSCOM soldiers back from relief operations in Louisiana". The Killeen Daily Herald.
- "13th Expeditionary Sustainment Command Troops Deploy". KCENTV. KCENTV. Archived from the original on 25 February 2012. Retrieved 5 February 2012.
- CNN Wire Staff (5 February 2012). "U.S. brigadier general dies in Afghanistan". cnn.com.