13th century

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Millennium: 2nd millennium
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Mongol Empire in 1227 at Genghis Khan's death
Double silver dirham of Ghazan Khan made after the intervention of Imam Ibn Taymiyyah.[1]
Obv: Legend in Arabic: لاإله إلا الله محمد رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم/ ضرب تبريز/ في سنة سبع ...ر Lā ilāha illa llāha Muḥammadun rasūlu llāhi ṣalla llāhu ʽalayhi wa-sallam / ḍuriba Tabrīz / fī sanati sabʽin ...: "There is no God but Allah, Muhammad is His Prophet, Peace be upon him / Minted in Tabriz in the year ...7"
Rev: Legend in Mongolian script (except for "Ghazan Mahmud" in Arabic): Tengri-yin Küchündür. Ghazan Mahmud. Ghasanu Deledkegülügsen: "By the strength of the Heaven / Ghazan Mahmud / Coin struck for Ghazan".
Tabriz mint. 4.0 gr (0.26 g). Silver.
The opening page of one of Ibn al-Nafis' medical works. This is probably a copy made in India during the 17th or 18th century.

The 13th century was the century which lasted from January 1, 1201 (MCCI) through December 31, 1300 (MCCC) in accordance with the Julian calendar. The term is almost synonymous with "the 1200s", the century between January 1, 1200, and December 31, 1299.

The Mongol empire was founded by Genghis Khan, which stretched from Eastern Asia to Eastern Europe. The conquests of Hulagu Khan and other Mongol invasions changed the course of the Muslim world, most notably the siege of Baghdad (1258), the destruction of the House of Wisdom and the weakening of the Mamluks and Rums which, according to historians, caused the decline of the Islamic Golden Age. Other Muslim powers such as the Mali Empire and Delhi Sultanate conquered large parts of West Africa and the Indian subcontinent, while Buddhism witnessed a decline through the conquest led by Bakhtiyar Khilji. In the history of European culture, this period is considered part of the High Middle Ages. In North America, according to some population estimates, the population of Cahokia grew to being equal to or larger than the population of 13th-century London.[2] In Peru, the Kingdom of Cuzco begins. The Kanem Empire in what is now Chad reaches its apex. The Solomonic dynasty in Ethiopia and the Zimbabwe Kingdom are founded. In the history of Maya civilizations, the 13th century marks the beginning of the Late Postclassic period. In the periodization of Precolumbian Peru, the 13th century is part of the Late Intermediate Period.


A page of the Italian Fibonacci's Liber Abaci from the Biblioteca Nazionale di Firenze showing the Fibonacci sequence with the position in the sequence labeled in Roman numerals and the value in Arabic-Hindu numerals.







Alai Gate and Qutub Minar were built during the Mamluk and Khalji dynasties of the Delhi Sultanate.[5]


Portrait of the Chinese Zen Buddhist Wuzhun Shifan, painted in 1238, Song dynasty.
Hommage of Edward I (kneeling), to the Philippe le Bel (seated). As duke of Aquitaine, Edward was a vassal to the French king.





Inventions, discoveries, introductions[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ For numismatic information: Coins of Ghazan Archived 2008-02-01 at the Wayback Machine, Ilkhanid coin reading Archived 2008-02-01 at the Wayback Machine.
  2. ^ Greater London, Inner London & Outer London Population & Density History, quoting from The London Encyclopedia, Ben Weinreb and Christopher Hibbert, ed., Macmillan, 2010, ISBN 1405049251
  3. ^ Francine Weiss and Mark R. Barnes (May 3, 1989). "National Register of Historic Places Registration: Grand Village of the Natchez Site / Fatherland Plantation Site (22-Ad-501)" (pdf). National Park Service. Cite journal requires |journal= (help) and Accompanying 3 photos, from 1989. (680 KB)
  4. ^ "Ken Angrok". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 25 July 2010.
  5. ^ Qutb Minar and its Monuments, Delhi UNESCO
  6. ^ Weinstein, Richard A.; Dumas, Ashley A. (2008). "The spread of shell-tempered ceramics along the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico" (PDF). Southeastern Archaeology. 27 (2). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-04-25.
  7. ^ Grousset, Rene (1988), Empire of steppes, Wars in Japan, Indochina and Java, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, p. 288, ISBN 0-8135-1304-9.
  8. ^ page 243
  9. ^ History of Aceh Archived August 13, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  10. ^ Weatherford, Jack (2004). Genghis khan and the making of the modern world. New York: Random House. p. 239. ISBN 0-609-80964-4.
  11. ^ YLE: Kenelle kellot soivat? (in Finnish)
  12. ^ Berlo and Phillips, 275

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