13th century BC

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Chinese ritual bronze wine vessel, Shang Dynasty, 13th century BC, Arthur M. Sackler Gallery

The 13th century BC was the period from 1300 to 1201 BC.

The world in the 13th century BC[edit]

Map of the Eastern Hemisphere in 1300 BC



  • c. 1300–1046 BC: in China, the Shang dynasty flourishes as it settles its capital, Yin, near Anyang.[1] Chinese settlers swarm in compact groups to create new clearing areas towards the Yangtze basin in the south, the Shanxi terraces in the northwest and the Wei River valley. The Shang then seem to frequently wage war with the still non-Sinicized populations who inhabit the Huai River valley. Graves in the form of cruciform pits have been discovered in Anyang containing chariots with their yokes, numerous bronze vases and the remains of human sacrifices, as well as the first Chinese inscriptions on oracle bones (Jiaguwen) or bronze vases.[2] China's Shang armies are organized into infantry and archers in companies of one hundred men, supporting sections of five chariots.[3]
  • c. 1300 BC: the Aryans dominate northwest India as far as the Sarasvati River.[4] The Vedas mention the Dasas (slaves) as their enemies. Dasas are interpreted as being a North Iranian tribe, Dahae. The Aryans are organized in tribal monarchies headed by a raja (king), who shares power with two councils or assemblies that will differentiate over time, the sabhā (court of justice) and the samiti (council of war).[5] Only one raja is named in the Rigveda: Sudas of the Bharatas, a tribe established on the upper reaches of the Sarasvatî. He is described as the victor of the coalition of ten kings, the most powerful of which was Pûru. Subsequently, the Kurus take control of the Bharatas.[6]
  • c. 1260 BC: Lapita pottery discovered at the Bourewa site southwest of Viti Levu dates back to this period.[7]

Middle East[edit]


Sovereign states[edit]

List of sovereign states in the 13th century BC.


  1. ^ San, Tan Koon (2014). Dynastic China. The Other Press. p. 17. ISBN 978-983-9541-88-5.
  2. ^ Soutif, Michel (2012). L'Asie, source de sciences et de techniques. EDP Sciences. p. 33. ISBN 978-2-7598-0125-1.
  3. ^ Gabriel, Richard A. (2002). The Great Armies of Antiquity. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 143. ISBN 978-0-275-97809-9.
  4. ^ Daniélou, Alain (1983). Histoire de l'Inde. Fayard. p. 223. ISBN 978-2-213-63953-6.
  5. ^ Masson-Oursel, Paul; Stern, Philippe; de Willman-Grabowska, H (2012). L'Inde antique et la civilisation indienne. Éditions Albin Michel. p. 88. ISBN 978-2-226-26086-4.
  6. ^ Boivin, Michel (2015). Histoire de l'Inde. Presses Universitaires de France. p. 8. ISBN 978-2-13-073032-3.
  7. ^ Gross, Jeffrey L. (2017). Waipi’O Valley. Vol. 1. Xlibris Corporation. p. 221. ISBN 978-1-5245-3905-4.
  8. ^ Berghe, Louis Vanden (1983). Reliefs rupestres de l'Irān ancien : Bruxelles, Musées royaux d'art et d'histoire, 26 octobre 1983-29 janvier 1984. Musées royaux d'art et d'histoire. p. 25.
  9. ^ Margueron, Jean-Claude (2012). Le Proche-Orient et l'Égypte antiques. Hachette Éducation Technique. p. 384. ISBN 978-2-01-140096-3.
  10. ^ Barral I Altet, Xavier (2013). Histoire de l'art. Presses Universitaires de France. p. 19. ISBN 978-2-13-062338-0.
  11. ^ Clutton-Brock, Juliet (2014). The Walking Larder : Patterns of Domestication, Pastoralism, and Predation. Routledge. p. 133. ISBN 978-1-317-59838-1.
  12. ^ Lemaire, André. "Les Araméens, un peuple, une langue, une écriture, au-delà des empires". www.clio.fr.
  13. ^ Cline, Eric. 1177 BC: The Year Civilization Collapsed [video], 2016, 1h10'17. See 5'41-6'19 for the invasion of the Sea People in the 5th yr of Merneptah's reign and the 8th year of Ramses III's, and 4'30 for the start of the Late Bronze Age collapse "on either side of 1200 BC".
  14. ^ Baurain, Claude (1997). Les Grecs et la Méditerranée orientale : des siècles "obscurs" à la fin de l'époque archaïque. Presses universitaires de France. p. 60.
  15. ^ Étienne, Roland (2004). Athènes, espaces urbains et histoire. Hachette. p. 23. ISBN 978-2-01-181444-9.
  16. ^ L’Europe au temps d’Ulysse. RMN - Grand Palais. 1999. p. 234. ISBN 978-2-7118-6293-1.
  17. ^ Curry, Andrew (24 March 2016). "Slaughter at the bridge: Uncovering a colossal Bronze Age battle". Science. Retrieved 11 March 2017.
  18. ^ Price, T. Douglas (2015). Ancient Scandinavia. Oxford University Press. p. 212. ISBN 978-0-19-023198-9.
  19. ^ Gimbutas, Marija (1965). Bronze Age cultures in Central and Eastern Europe. De Gruyter. p. 245. ISBN 978-3-11-166814-7.
  20. ^ Leighton, Robert (1999). Sicily Before History: An Archaeological Survey from the Palaeolithic to the Iron Age. Cornell University Press. p. 150. ISBN 978-0-8014-8585-5.
  21. ^ Brunet, Olivier (2016). Les marqueurs archéologiques du pouvoir. Publications de la Sorbonne. p. 28. ISBN 979-10-351-0005-6.
  22. ^ Demoule, Jean-Paul; Garcia, Dominique; Schnapp, Alain (2018). Une histoire des civilisations (in French). La Découverte. p. 319. ISBN 978-2-7071-8878-6.