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The 1410s decade ran from January 1, 1410, to December 31, 1419.
- March 25 – The first of the Yongle Emperor's campaigns against the Mongols is launched, leading to the fall of Öljei Temür Khan.
- March 29 – The Aragonese capture Oristano, capital of the Giudicato di Arborea in Sardinia.
- June 15 – Ottoman Interregnum: Süleyman Çelebi defeats his brother Musa Çelebi outside the Byzantine capital, Constantinople.
- July 11 – Ottoman Interregnum: Süleyman Çelebi defeats his brother Musa Çelebi outside the Ottoman capital, Edirne.
- July 15 – Battle of Grunwald (Žalgiris), also known as Battle of Tannenberg: Polish and Lithuanian forces under cousins Jogaila and Vytautas the Great decisively defeat the forces of the Teutonic Knights, whose power is broken.
- Jan Hus is excommunicated by the Archbishop of Prague.
- Antipope John XXIII is elected.
- Construction begins on Castle Woerden in the Netherlands.
- The Prague Astronomical Clock (also known as Prague Orloj) is built by Mikuláš of Kadaň and Jan Šindel in Prague, the capital of the Czech Republic.
- February 1 – The First Peace of Thorn is signed at Thorn in the Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights, ending the Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War.
- February 17 – Ottoman Interregnum: Süleyman Çelebi is killed after being forced to flee his capital, Edirne, by his brother Musa Çelebi. Rule of the Ottoman domains in Europe (Rumelia) passes to Musa.
- July 6 – Ming dynasty Admiral Zheng He returns to Nanjing after his second voyage, and presents the Sinhalese king, captured during the Ming–Kotte War, to the Yongle Emperor.
- July 24 – Battle of Harlaw in Scotland: Domhnall of Islay, Lord of the Isles, and an army commanded by Alexander Stewart, Earl of Mar battle to a bloody draw.
- September 3 – The Treaty of Selymbria is concluded between the Ottoman Empire and the Republic of Venice.
- September 21 – King Henry IV of England calls his ninth parliament.
- November 30 – Henry IV dismisses Prince Henry and his supporters from the government.
- Under the Yongle Emperor of Ming China, work begins to reinstate the ancient Grand Canal of China, which fell into disuse and dilapidation during the previous Yuan dynasty. Between 1411 and 1415, a total of 165,000 laborers dredge the canal bed in Shandong, build new channels, embankments, and canal locks. Four large reservoirs in Shandong are also dug, in order to regulate water levels, instead of resorting to pumping water from local tables. A large dam is also constructed, to divert water from the Wen River southwest into the Grand Canal.
- Constantinople is briefly besieged by the Ottoman pretender Musa Çelebi, due to Byzantine support for Süleyman Çelebi during the Ottoman Interregnum.
- (possibly early 1412) The Battle of İnceğiz between the rival brothers Mehmed Çelebi and Musa Çelebi, during the Ottoman Interregnum.
- January 16 – The Medici Family are made official bankers of the Papacy.
- January 25 – Ernest, Duke of Austria, marries Cymburgis of Masovia.
- February 28 – The University of St Andrews in Scotland is granted a charter of privilege by the local bishop.
- July 24 – Behnam Hadloyo becomes Syriac Orthodox Patriarch of Mardin.
- October 5 – Emperor Go-Komatsu abdicates, and Emperor Shoko accedes to the throne of Japan.
- October 28 – Eric of Pomerania becomes sole ruler of the Kalmar Union (Sweden, Denmark and Norway), upon the death of Queen Margaret.
- December – Battle of Chalagan: The Kara Koyunlu Turkomans defeat the Georgians under Constantine I of Georgia, and their ally Ibrahim I of Shirvan.
- The first mention is made of Wallachian knights competing in a jousting tournament, in Buda.
- John II of Castile declares the Valladolid laws, that restrict the social rights of Jews. Among many other restrictions, the laws force Jews to wear distinctive clothes, and deny them administrative positions.
- Years after its publication in the 14th century, the Ming Dynasty Chinese artillery officer Jiao Yu adds the preface to his classic book on gunpowder warfare, the Huolongjing.
- March 21 – Henry V becomes King of England following the death of his father Henry IV.
- July 5 – Battle of Çamurlu: Mehmed I defeats his brother Musa, ending the Ottoman Interregnum.
- August 28 – The University of St Andrews in Scotland is chartered by papal bull.
- October 2 – The Kingdom of Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania sign the Union of Horodło.
- Samogitia becomes the last region in Europe to be Christianized.
- The Annals of the Joseon Dynasty begin in Korea.
- January 7 – Michael Küchmeister von Sternberg becomes the 28th Grand Master of the Teutonic Order.
- May 28 – Khizr Khan (Timur's governor of Multan) takes the Delhi Sultanate from Daulat Khan Lodi, founding the Sayyid Dynasty.
- August 6 – Joanna II succeeds her brother Ladislaus, as Queen of Naples.
- November 16 – The Council of Constance begins.
- Ernest, Duke of Austria (head of the Leopoldian line of the House of Habsburg) is the last duke to be enthroned in the Duchy of Carinthia, according to the ancient Carantanian ritual of installing dukes at the Prince's Stone; he adopts the title of Archduke.
- Alien priory cells are suppressed in England.[where?]
- The Tibetan lama Je Tsongkhapa, of the Gelug school of Buddhism, declines the offer of the Yongle Emperor of China to appear in the capital at Nanjing, although he sends his disciple Chosrje Shākya Yeshes, who is given the title "State Teacher". The later Xuande Emperor will grant Yeshes the title of a king, upon a return visit to China (to the new capital at Beijing).
- Durham School is founded as a grammar school in the city of Durham, England by Thomas Langley, Prince-Bishop of Durham; it continues in existence as an independent school 600 years later.
- April 30 – Frederick I becomes Elector of Brandenburg.
- June 5 – The Council of Constance condemns the writings of John Wycliffe and asks Jan Hus to recant in public his heresy; after his denial, he is tried for heresy, excommunicated, then sentenced to be burned at the stake.
- July 4 – Pope Gregory XII officially opens the Council of Constance, and then abdicates. He is the last pope to resign, until Pope Benedict XVI in 2013.
- July 6 – Jan Hus is burned at the stake in Konstanz.
- July 31 – Henry V of England is informed of the Southampton Plot against him; he has the leaders arrested and executed, before invading France.
- August 21 – Conquest of Ceuta: Portugal conquers the city of Ceuta from the Moors, initiating the Portuguese Empire, and European expansion and colonialism.
- October 25 – Battle of Agincourt: archers of Henry V of England are instrumental in defeating a massed army of French knights.
- Avignon Pope Benedict XIII orders all Talmuds to be delivered to the diocese, and held until further notice.
- The Swiss Confederation takes the territory of Aargau from the house of Habsburg.
- The Grand Canal of China is reinstated by this year after it had fallen out of use; restoration began in 1411, and was a response by the Yongle Emperor of the Ming Dynasty to improve the grain shipment system of tribute traveling from south to north, towards his new capital at Beijing. With this action, the food supply crisis is solved by the end of the year.
- The Orthodox Church in the lands of the tsardom of Muskovy (actual Russia) separates from the one in Ukraine and Belarus, both patriarchate.1422 to be the true Kiev patriarchate.
- January 27 – The Republic of Ragusa is the first state in Europe to outlaw slavery.
- May 29 – Battle of Gallipoli: Venetian admiral Pietro Loredan destroys the Ottoman fleet.
- May 30 – The Catholic Church burns Jerome of Prague as a heretic.
- The Trezzo sull'Adda Bridge (the longest arch bridge in the world at the time) is destroyed.
- The Hussite Bible is completed by Tamás Pécsi and Bálint Újlaki.
- June 29 – An English fleet, led by the Earl of Huntingdon, defeats a fleet of Genoese carracks and captures their admiral, the "Bastard of Bourbon".
- July 27 – Avignon Pope Benedict XIII is deposed, bringing to an end the Great Western Schism.
- August 12 – King Henry V of England begins using English in correspondence (back to England from France whilst on campaign), marking the beginning of this king's continuous usage of English in prose, and the beginning of the restoration of English as an official language for the first time since the Norman Conquest, some 350 years earlier.
- September 20 – Henry V of England captures Caen, Normandy, which remains in English hands until 1450.
- November 14 – Pope Martin V succeeds Pope Gregory XII (who abdicated in 1415), as the 206th pope.
- The earliest extant description of Tynwald Day; the annual meeting of the Isle of Man's parliament (Tynwald) is written down in law.
- The use of street lighting is first recorded in London, England when Sir Henry Barton, the mayor, orders lanterns with lights to be hung out on the winter evenings, between Hallowtide and Candlemas.
- Mircea cel Bătrân loses Dobruja to the Ottomans and pays them tribute, thus preventing Wallachia from becoming an Ottoman province.
- Chimalpopoca, son of Huitzilihuitl, succeeds his father as Tlatoani (monarch) of Tenochtitlan (modern Mexico City)
- Founding of the oldest "Wirtshaus"(gastronomical establishment) of Munich, "Alter Wirt Obermenzing"
- January 31 – Mircea I of Wallachia is succeeded by Michael I of Wallachia.
- April 22 – The Council of Constance ends.
- May 29 – John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy, captures Paris.
- September 18 – King Taejong (r. 1400-1418) of the Joseon dynasty abdicates the throne. King Sejong ascends to the throne.
- January 19 – Hundred Years' War: Rouen surrenders to Henry V of England, which brings Normandy under the control of England.
- June 20 – The Ōei Invasion of Tsushima Island, Japan by Joseon Korea begins.
- July 30 – The first Defenestration of Prague occurs in Bohemia.
- August – Siege of Ceuta: The Portuguese successfully defend off the invading Moroccans who attempt to retake the city of Ceuta.
- September 10 – John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy is assassinated by adherents of the Dauphin.
- November – The Ottoman–Venetian peace treaty ends four years of conflict, by recognizing Venetian possessions in the Aegean and the Balkans.
- Portuguese sea captains João Gonçalves Zarco and Tristão Vaz Teixeira, at the service of Prince Henry the Navigator, discover the Madeira Islands.
- The University of Rostock is established as the oldest university of northern Europe.
- The Timurid ruler of Persia, Mirza Shahrukh (r. 1404–1447), sends a large embassy to the court of the Yongle Emperor of China. One of the Persian envoys, Ghiyāth al-dīn Naqqāsh, keeps a diary of his travels throughout China, which soon becomes widely known throughout Iranian and the Turkic Middle East, thanks to its inclusion into historical works by Hafiz-i Abru, and Abdur Razzaq. Naqqash writes about China's wealthy economy and huge urban markets, its efficient courier system as compared to that in Persia, the hospitality of his hosts at the courier stations in providing comfortable lodging and food, and the fine luxurious goods and craftsmanship of the Chinese.
- Mihail I defends Wallachia against the Ottomans, with Hungarian help.
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- January 30 – William Calthorpe, English knight (d. 1494)
- July 14 – Arnold, Duke of Guelders, Duke of Guelders (1423–1465 and 1471–1473) (d. 1473)
- August 1 – John IV, Count of Nassau-Siegen (1442–1475) (d. 1475)
- date unknown
- September 21 – Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York, claimant to the English throne (d. 1460)
- date unknown – Juan de Mena, Spanish poet (d. 1456)
- Margareta of Celje, Polish Duchess (d. 1480)
- January 6 – Joan of Arc, French soldier and saint (tradition holds that she was born on the Feast of the Epiphany, but there is no documentary evidence) (d. 1431)
- January 26 – William IV, Lord of Egmont, IJsselstein, Schoonderwoerd and Haastrecht and Stadtholder of Guelders (d. 1483)
- April 22 – Reinhard III, Count of Hanau (1451–1452) (d. 1452)
- June 5 – Ludovico III Gonzaga, Marquis of Mantua (d. 1478)
- August 22 – Frederick II, Elector of Saxony and Margrave of Meissen (1428–1464) and Landgrave of Thuringia (1440–1445) (d. 1464)
- November 17 – Zanobi Strozzi, Italian painter (d. 1468)
- December 8 – Astorre II Manfredi, Italian noble (d. 1468)
- February 24 – Louis, Duke of Savoy (d. 1465)
- September 8 – Catherine of Bologna, Italian cloistered nun (d. 1463)
- November 19 – Frederick II, Elector of Brandenburg (d. 1471)
- date unknown – Joanot Martorell, Spanish writer (d. 1468)-
- March 25 – Thomas Clifford, 8th Baron de Clifford, English noble (d. 1455)
- May 11 – Francis I, Duke of Brittany (d. 1450)
- July 7 – Henry II, Count of Nassau-Dillenburg, Co-ruler of Nassau-Dillenburg (1442–1450) (d. 1451)
- July 21 – Pope Sixtus IV (d. 1484)
- November 7 – Jami, Persian poet (d. 1492)
- November 9 – Albrecht III Achilles, Elector of Brandenburg, Prince-elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg (d. 1486)
- date unknown
- probable – Narsinh Mehta, poet-saint of Gujarat (d. 1481)
- March 10 – Vasily II of Moscow, Grand Prince (d. 1462)
- March 14 – Wilhelm II, Count of Henneberg-Schleusingen (d. 1444)
- May 3 – Cecily Neville, English duchess, mother of Edward IV of England and Richard III of England (d. 1495)
- September 12 – John Mowbray, 3rd Duke of Norfolk, English magnate (d. 1461)
- August 15 – Marko Marulić, Croatian poet, lawyer, judge, and Renaissance humanist who coined the term "psychology" (d. 1524).
- September 16 – Elizabeth de Beauchamp, Baroness Bergavenny, English baroness (d. 1448)
- September 21 – Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor (d. 1493)
- October 18 – Heinrich von Dissen, German theologian (d. 1484)
- November 26 – Han Myung-hoi, Korean politician (d. 1487)
- December 1 – Jan Długosz, Polish historian (d. 1480)
- date unknown
- February 26 – Christopher of Bavaria (d. 1448)
- March 27 – Antonio Squarcialupi, Italian organist and composer (d. 1480)
- March 28 – Jodha of Mandore, Ruler of Marwar (d. 1489)
- May 25 – Jakobus, nobleman from Lichtenberg in the northern part of Alsace (d. 1480)
- October 26 – Edmund Grey, 1st Earl of Kent (d. 1490)
- date unknown
- probable – Jacquetta of Luxembourg, English duchess and countess (d. 1472)
- February 23
- May 25 – Catherine of Cleves, Duchess consort regent of Guelders (d. 1479)
- June 19 – Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta, lord of Rimini (d. 1468)
- November 8 – Philipp I, Count of Hanau-Lichtenberg (1458–1480) (d. 1480)
- November 19 – Frederick I, Count Palatine of Simmern from 1459 until 1480 (d. 1480)
- November 23 – William FitzAlan, 16th Earl of Arundel, English politician (d. 1487)
- date unknown
- January 9 – Juan Ramón Folch III de Cardona, Aragonese admiral (d. 1485)
- March 14 – Philip II, Count of Nassau-Weilburg (1429–1492) (d. 1492)
- April 20 – Earl David of Rookwood
- May 16 – John II of Cyprus, King of Cyprus and Armenia and also titular King of Jerusalem from 1432 to 1458 (d. 1458)
- August 5 – Malatesta Novello, Italian condottiero (d. 1465)
- September 24 – Anne of Cyprus, Italian noble (d. 1462)
- November 2 – Gaspare Nadi, Italian builder famous for his diary (diario) (d. 1504)
- November 20 – Robert de Morley, 6th Baron Morley, Lord of Morley Saint Botolph (d. 1442)
- December 8 – Queen Jeonghui, Queen consort of Korea (d. 1483)
- December 12 – Archduke Albert VI of Austria (d. 1463)
- date unknown – Peter II, Duke of Brittany (d. 1457)
- February – Abu 'Amr 'Uthman, Hafsid caliph of Ifriqiya (d. 1488)
- February 16 – John I, Duke of Cleves (d. 1481)
- March 24 – Ginevra d'Este (d. 1440)
- June 24 – John of Sahagún, Spanish Augustinian friar, priest and saint (d. 1479)
- July 10 – Emperor Go-Hanazono of Japan (d. 1471)
- November 1 – Albert II, Duke of Brunswick-Grubenhagen (d. 1485)
- date unknown
- March 5 – Matthew of Kraków, Polish reformer (b. 1335)
- March 16 – John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset (b. 1373)
- May 3 – Antipope Alexander V, (b. 1339)
- May 18 – Rupert of Germany, Count Palatine of the Rhine (b. 1352)
- May 31 – Martin of Aragon (b. 1356)
- July 15 – Ulrich von Jungingen, German Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights (in battle) (b. 1360)
- August – Matthew I of Constantinople
- August 10 – Louis II, Duke of Bourbon (b. 1337)
- date unknown
- January 18 – Jobst of Moravia, ruler of Moravia, King of the Romans
- February 6 – Esau de' Buondelmonti, ruler of Epirus
- June 3 –Leopold IV, Duke of Austria (b. 1371)
- September – Anne de Mortimer, Countess of Cambridge (b. 1390)
- November 4 – Khalil Sultan, ruler of Transoxiana (b. 1384)
- probable – Hasdai Crescas, Jewish philosopher
- March – Albrekt of Mecklenburg, king of Sweden 1364–1389 (b. 1336)
- April 2 – Ruy Gonzáles de Clavijo, Castilian traveller and writer
- May 16 – Gian Maria Visconti, Duke of Milan
- August 6 – Margherita of Durazzo, Queen consort of Charles III of Naples (b. 1347)
- September 14 – Ingegerd Knutsdotter, Swedish abbess (b. 1356)
- October 28 – Margaret I of Denmark, queen regnant of Denmark of Norway since 1387 and of Sweden since 1389 (b. 1353)
- date unknown – Ignatius Abraham bar Garib, Syriac Orthodox Patriarch of Mardin
- date unknown – Jalal ad-Din khan, khan of the Golden Horde
- January 25 – Maud de Ufford, Countess of Oxford (b. 1345)
- March 20 – Henry IV of England (b. 1367)
- July 5 – Musa Çelebi, Ottoman prince and co-ruler of the Ottoman Empire
- September 26 – Stephen III, Duke of Bavaria (b. 1337)
- October 6 – Dawit I of Ethiopia (b. 1382)
- December 26 – Michele Steno, Doge of Venice (b. 1331)
- February 19 – Thomas Arundel, Archbishop of Canterbury (b. 1353)
- March 28 – Jeanne-Marie de Maille, French Roman Catholic saint (b. 1331)
- August 6 – King Ladislaus of Naples (b. 1377)
- September 1 – William de Ros, 6th Baron de Ros, Lord Treasurer of England (b. 1369)
- date unknown
- probable – Zyndram of Maszkowice, Polish 14th- and 15th-century knight (b. 1355)
- April 15 – Manuel Chrysoloras, Greek humanist
- July 6 – Jan Hus, Bohemian reformer (burned at the stake) (b. 1369)
- July 19 – Philippa of Lancaster, queen of John I of Portugal (plague) (b. 1359)
- August 2 – Thomas Grey, conspirator against King Henry V (executed) (b. 1384)
- August 5
- September 17 – Michael de la Pole, 2nd Earl of Suffolk (killed in battle) (b. 1367)
- October 13 – Thomas FitzAlan, 12th Earl of Arundel, English military leader (b. 1381)
- October 25 (killed in Battle of Agincourt)
- John I of Alençon (b. 1385)
- Charles d'Albret, Count of Dreux and Constable of France
- Antoine, Duke of Brabant (b. 1384)
- Michael de la Pole, 3rd Earl of Suffolk (b. 1394)
- Frederick of Lorraine, Count of Vaudémont (b. 1371)
- Philip II, Count of Nevers (b. 1389)
- Edward of Norwich, 2nd Duke of York (b. 1373)
- Dafydd Gam, Welsh nobleman (b. c. 1380)
- February 2 – Racek Kobyla of Dvorce, Bohemian Hetman and Burgrave.
- February 27 – Eleanor of Castile, queen consort of Navarre (b. c. 1363)
- April 2 – King Ferdinand I of Aragon (b. 1379)
- May 21 – Anna of Celje, queen consort of Poland (b. c. 1381)
- May 30 – Jerome of Prague, Czech theologian (executed) (b. 1379)
- June 15 – John, Duke of Berry, son of John II of France (b. 1340)
- October 1 – Yaqub Spata, lord of Arta
- October 14 – Henry the Mild, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg
- December 29 – Mathew Swetenham, bowbearer of Henry IV
- date unknown – The Limbourg brothers, painters of the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry.
- January – Art mac Art MacMurrough-Kavanagh, King of Leinster (b. 1357)
- March 5 – Manuel III Megas Komnenos, Emperor of Trebizond (b. 1364)
- April 29 – Louis II of Anjou (b. 1377)
- September 4 – Robert Hallam, English Catholic bishop
- September 22 – Anne of Auvergne, Sovereign Dauphine of Auvergne and Countess of Forez (b. 1358)
- September 26 – Francesco Zabarella, Italian jurist (b. 1360)
- October 18 – Pope Gregory XII (b. c.1325)
- November 17 – Gazi Evrenos, Ottoman general (b. 1288)
- December 14 – John Oldcastle, English Lollard leader (executed)
- probable – Huitzilíhuitl, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan
- January 31 – Mircea I of Wallachia, ruler of Wallachia (b. 1355)
- March 22 – Dietrich of Nieheim, German historian
- June 2 – Katherine of Lancaster, queen of Henry III of Castile
- June 12 – Bernard VII, Count of Armagnac, Constable of France (b. 1360)
- November 25 – Henry Beaufort, 2nd Earl of Somerset (b. 1401)
- December 11 – Louis of Piedmont (b. 1364)
- date unknown
- April 5 – Vincent Ferrer, Spanish missionary and saint (b. 1350)
- August 16 – Wenceslaus, King of the Romans, King of Bohemia (b. 1361)
- September 10 – John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy (assassinated) (b. 1371)
- December 17 – William Gascoigne, Chief Justice of England
- December 22 – Antipope John XXIII
- date unknown
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