|Cardinal||one hundred forty-four thousand|
(one hundred forty-four thousandth)
|Factorization||27 × 32 × 53|
|Roman numeral||CXLIV or CXLMMMM|
144,000 is a natural number. It has significance in various religious movements and ancient prophetic belief systems.
Book of Revelation
The number 144,000 appears three times in the Book of Revelation:
- Revelation 7:3–8:
saying: "Do not harm the earth or the sea or the trees, until we have sealed the servants of God on their foreheads."
And I heard the number of the sealed, 144,000, sealed from every tribe of the sons of Israel:
12,000 from the tribe of Judah were sealed,
12,000 from the tribe of Reuben,
12,000 from the tribe of Gad,
12,000 from the tribe of Asher,
12,000 from the tribe of Naphtali,
12,000 from the tribe of Manasseh,
12,000 from the tribe of Simeon,
12,000 from the tribe of Levi,
12,000 from the tribe of Issachar,
12,000 from the tribe of Zebulun,
12,000 from the tribe of Joseph,
12,000 from the tribe of Benjamin were sealed.
- Revelation 14:1:
- Revelation 14:3–5:
and they were singing a new song before the throne and before the four living creatures and before the elders. No one could learn that song except the 144,000 who had been redeemed from the earth. It is these who have not defiled themselves with women, for they are virgins. It is these who follow the Lamb wherever he goes. These have been redeemed from mankind as firstfruits for God and the Lamb, and in their mouth no lie was found, for they are blameless.
The numbers 12,000 and 144,000 are variously interpreted in traditional Christianity. Some, taking the numbers in Revelation to be symbolic, believe it represents all of God's people throughout history in the heavenly Church. One suggestion is that the number comes from 12, a symbol for totality, which is squared and multiplied by one thousand for more emphasis. Others insist the numbers 12,000 and 144,000 are literal numbers and representing either descendants of Jacob (also called Israel in the Bible) or others to whom God has given a superior destiny with a distinct role at the time of the end of the world. One understanding is that the 144,000 are recently converted Jewish evangelists sent out to bring sinners to Jesus Christ during the seven year tribulation period. Preterists believe they are Jewish Christians, sealed for deliverance from the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 A.D. Dispensationalist Tim LaHaye, in his commentary Revelation: Illustrated and Made Plain (Zondervan, 1975), considers the 144,000 in Revelation 7 to refer to Jews and those in Revelation 14 to refer to Christians.
Jehovah's Witnesses believe that exactly 144,000 faithful Christians from Pentecost of 33 AD until the present day will be resurrected to heaven as immortal spirit beings to spend eternity with God and Christ. They believe that these people are "anointed" by God to become part of the spiritual "Israel of God". They believe the 144,000 (which they consider to be synonymous with the "little flock" of Luke 12:32) will serve with Christ as king-priests for a thousand years, while all other people accepted by God (the "other sheep" of John 10:16, composed of "the great crowd" of Revelation 7:9,14 and the resurrected "righteous and the unrighteous" ones of Acts 24:15), will be given an opportunity to live forever in a restored paradise on earth.
Individual Witnesses indicate their claim of being "anointed" by partaking of the bread and wine at the annual Memorial of Christ's death. More than 20,700 Witnesses worldwide—an increase of about 12,000 since 1995—claim to be of the anointed "remnant" of the 144,000. The members of the Governing Body who exercise teaching authority over Jehovah's Witnesses worldwide claim to be among the anointed 144,000, and also consider themselves as a group to be the faithful and discreet slave of Matthew 24:45 and Luke 12:42.
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints believes that the sealing of the 144,000 relates to the high priests, ordained unto the holy order of God, to administer the everlasting gospel; "for they are they who are ordained out of every nation, kindred, tongue, and people, by the angels to whom is given power over the nations of the earth, to bring as many as will come to the church of the Firstborn."
The Unification Church founded by Reverend Sun Myung Moon believes the 144,000 represents the total number of saints whom Christ must find "who can restore through indemnity the missions of all the past saints who, despite their best efforts to do God's Will, fell prey to Satan when they failed in their responsibilities. He must find these people during his lifetime and lay the foundation of victory over Satan's world".
144,000 is alleged to have been the number of Sahaba of Muhammad, though other totals have been given. The number is also given as the total number of prophets in Islam, although this has also been reported as 124,000 or 244,000. The actual number of prophets or Sahaba (Companions) is not known; about 30 prophets are mentioned by name in the Qur'an.
- Coptic sources calculate the number of Holy Innocents massacred to have been 144,000.
- A Baktun is 20 Katun cycles of the ancient Maya Long Count calendar, which contains 144,000 days.
- Revelation 7:3–8
- Revelation 14:1
- Revelation 14:3–5
- "The Book of Revelation: Numbers". catholic-resources.org.
- John L. McKenzie. Dictionary of the Bible. p. 621.
144,000 sealed in Apocalypse [Revelation] 7:4ff; 14:1 ff: This is 12, the number of the tribes of Israel, multiplied by itself and then multiplied by 1000, the number of a military unit in the ancient Israelite army. The number indicates the fullness of Israel; the Church in the New Testament is conceived as the fullness of Israel, and this is the heavenly Church in its final completion.
- Robert L Thomas (May 8, 2012). "One Hundred Forty-Four Thousand: Who Are They?". Ankerberg Theological Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2012-05-08.
The earth-dwellers will stand in rebellion against God, but the 144,000 as slaves of God will faithfully proclaim the gospel.
- "144,000 are Jewish evangelists". meaningofrevelation.com. Archived from the original on July 9, 2009. Retrieved April 21, 2018.
- "Bible - Revelation chapter 14 explained in detail". Archived from the original on July 26, 2010. Retrieved April 19, 2010.
- What does the Bible Really Teach?, ch. 8, p. 79
- Rhodes, Ron (2009). Reasoning from the Scriptures with the Jehovah's Witnesses. Harvest House Publishers. p. 258. ISBN 978-0-7369-2451-1.
- "Questions From Readers". The Watchtower. August 15, 1996. p. 30.
- "2021 Grand Totals". Watch Tower Society.
- "Annual Meeting Report". Watch Tower Society. Retrieved April 21, 2018.
- "The Faithful Steward and Its Governing Body". The Watchtower. Watch Tower Society. June 15, 2009. pp. 23–24.
- 2011 Yearbook of Jehovah's Witnesses. Watch Tower Society. 2012. p. 51.
- "Doctrine and Covenants 77". www.churchofjesuschrist.org. Retrieved April 21, 2018.
- Heretz, Leonid (2010). Russia on the Eve of Modernity. New studies in European history. Cambridge University Press. p. 92. ISBN 9781139470667.
The day of the Skoptsy's final triumph would come when their ranks reached the number of 144,000 (Revelation 7:4).
- Brackney, William H. (2012). Historical Dictionary of Radical Christianity. Scarecrow Press. p. 293. ISBN 9780810873650.
The Skoptsy were perfectionists and Millennarians. Their practices were to lead them to qualifying for being admitted to a Millennial kingdom, which would begin when there were 144,000 Skoptsy believers (inspired by Revelation 14:1–4)
- Exposition of the Divine Principle. Unification Church. p. 144.
- Hughes, Thomas Patrick. "Ashab". A Dictionary of Islam.
- Wherry, Elwood Morris & Sale, George. A Comprehensive Commentary on the Qurán
- E. Porcher, ed. and tr., Histoire d'Isaac, patriarche Jacobite d'Alexandrie de 686 à 689, écrite par Mina, évêque de Pchati, volume 11. 1915. Texts in Arabic, Greek and Syriac, p. 526.