1449 Virtanen

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1449 Virtanen
Discovery [1]
Discovered by Y. Väisälä
Discovery site Turku Obs.
Discovery date 20 February 1938
Designations
MPC designation (1449) Virtanen
Named after
Artturi Virtanen (biochemist)[2]
1938 DO · 1928 DC
main-belt · Flora[3]
Orbital characteristics[1]
Epoch 16 February 2017 (JD 2457800.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc 88.70 yr (32,397 days)
Aphelion 2.5376 AU
Perihelion 1.9070 AU
2.2223 AU
Eccentricity 0.1419
3.31 yr (1,210 days)
229.55°
0° 17m 51s / day
Inclination 6.6413°
110.78°
132.17°
Physical characteristics
Dimensions 9.15±1.91 km[4]
9.263±0.098 km[5]
9.46±0.33 km[6]
9.947±0.092 km[7]
10.31 km (calculated)[3]
14.770±0.440 h (R)[8]
30.495±0.005 h[9]
30.5±0.5 h[10]
30.5005±0.0005 h[11]
30.5006±0.0001 h[12]
30.52±0.01 h[10]
30.5421±0.7655 h (R)[13]
30.5465±0.3727 h (S)[13]
0.24 (assumed)[3]
0.285±0.038[6]
0.2856±0.0274[7]
0.36±0.15[4]
Tholen = S[1] · S[3]
11.690±0.150 (R)[8] · 11.779±0.003 (R)[13] · 12.0[7] · 12.1[1][3][6] · 12.25[4] · 12.615±0.004 (S)[13] · 13.21±0.09[14]

1449 Virtanen, provisional designation 1938 DO, is a stony Florian asteroid from the inner regions of the asteroid belt, approximately 9.2 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 20 February 1938, by Finnish astronomer Yrjö Väisälä at Turku Observatory in Southwest Finland,[15] and named for Finnish biochemist Artturi Virtanen.[2]

Description[edit]

In the Tholen taxonomy, Virtanen is a S-type asteroid. It is a member of the Flora family, one of the largest collisional populations of stony asteroids in the main-belt. It orbits the Sun at a distance of 1.9–2.5 AU once every 3 years and 4 months (1,210 days). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.14 and an inclination of 7° with respect to the ecliptic.[1] In 1928, Virtanen was first identified as 1928 DC at Heidelberg, extending the body's observation arc by 10 years prior to its official discovery at Turku.[15]

Virtanen's first rotational light-curve was obtained by astronomers Pierre Antonini and Silvano Casulli in May 2007, followed by Australian astronomer Julian Oey at Leura (E17) and Kingsgrove Observatory (E19) in June 2008. The light-curves gave a rotation period of approximately 30.5 hours with a brightness variation of 0.6 magnitude (U=2-/3-/3-).[9][10] Additional periods were obtained from photometric observation in the R and S-band at the Palomar Transient Factory (U=2/2/2),[8][13] and from modeled data using the Lowell photometric database and other data sources, which also gave two spin axis of (307.0°, 58.0°) and (89.0°, 61.0°) in ecliptic coordinates, respectively (U=n.a.).[11][12]

According to the survey carried out by NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer with its subsequent NEOWISE mission, Virtanen measures between 9.15 and 9.947 kilometers in diameter, and its surface has an albedo between 0.285 and 0.36.[4][5][6][7] The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link assumes an albedo of 0.24 – derived from 8 Flora, the largest member and namesake of its family – and calculates a diameter of 10.31 kilometers based on an absolute magnitude of 12.1.[3]

This minor planet was named for famous Finnish biochemist Artturi Virtanen (1895–1973), recipient of the 1945 Nobel Prize in Chemistry and president of the Academy of Finland for many years.[2] Naming citation was published before November 1977 (M.P.C. 3023).[16]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 1449 Virtanen (1938 DO)" (2016-11-05 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 4 January 2017. 
  2. ^ a b c Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (1449) Virtanen. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 116. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3. Retrieved 4 January 2017. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f "LCDB Data for (1449) Virtanen". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 4 January 2017. 
  4. ^ a b c d Nugent, C. R.; Mainzer, A.; Bauer, J.; Cutri, R. M.; Kramer, E. A.; Grav, T.; et al. (September 2016). "NEOWISE Reactivation Mission Year Two: Asteroid Diameters and Albedos". The Astronomical Journal. 152 (3): 12. arXiv:1606.08923Freely accessible. Bibcode:2016AJ....152...63N. doi:10.3847/0004-6256/152/3/63. Retrieved 4 January 2017. 
  5. ^ a b Masiero, Joseph R.; Grav, T.; Mainzer, A. K.; Nugent, C. R.; Bauer, J. M.; Stevenson, R.; et al. (August 2014). "Main-belt Asteroids with WISE/NEOWISE: Near-infrared Albedos". The Astrophysical Journal. 791 (2): 11. arXiv:1406.6645Freely accessible. Bibcode:2014ApJ...791..121M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/791/2/121. Retrieved 4 January 2017. 
  6. ^ a b c d Masiero, Joseph R.; Mainzer, A. K.; Grav, T.; Bauer, J. M.; Cutri, R. M.; Nugent, C.; et al. (November 2012). "Preliminary Analysis of WISE/NEOWISE 3-Band Cryogenic and Post-cryogenic Observations of Main Belt Asteroids". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 759 (1): 5. arXiv:1209.5794Freely accessible. Bibcode:2012ApJ...759L...8M. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/759/1/L8. Retrieved 4 January 2017. 
  7. ^ a b c d Mainzer, A.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; Hand, E.; Bauer, J.; Tholen, D.; et al. (November 2011). "NEOWISE Studies of Spectrophotometrically Classified Asteroids: Preliminary Results" (PDF). The Astrophysical Journal. 741 (2): 25. arXiv:1109.6407Freely accessible. Bibcode:2011ApJ...741...90M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/741/2/90. Retrieved 4 January 2017. 
  8. ^ a b c Chang, Chan-Kao; Ip, Wing-Huen; Lin, Hsing-Wen; Cheng, Yu-Chi; Ngeow, Chow-Choong; Yang, Ting-Chang; et al. (August 2015). "Asteroid Spin-rate Study Using the Intermediate Palomar Transient Factory". The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series. 219 (2): 19. arXiv:1506.08493Freely accessible. Bibcode:2015ApJS..219...27C. doi:10.1088/0067-0049/219/2/27. Retrieved 4 January 2017. 
  9. ^ a b Oey, Julian (October 2009). "Lightcurve Analysis of Asteroids from Leura and Kingsgrove Observatory in the Second Half of 2008". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 36 (4): 162–164. Bibcode:2009MPBu...36..162O. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 4 January 2017. 
  10. ^ a b c Behrend, Raoul. "Asteroids and comets rotation curves – (1449) Virtanen". Geneva Observatory. Retrieved 4 January 2017. 
  11. ^ a b Hanus, J.; Durech, J.; Oszkiewicz, D. A.; Behrend, R.; Carry, B.; Delbo, M.; et al. (February 2016). "New and updated convex shape models of asteroids based on optical data from a large collaboration network" (PDF). Astronomy and Astrophysics. 586: 24. arXiv:1510.07422Freely accessible. Bibcode:2016A&A...586A.108H. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201527441. Retrieved 4 January 2017. 
  12. ^ a b Durech, J.; Hanus, J.; Oszkiewicz, D.; Vanco, R. (March 2016). "Asteroid models from the Lowell photometric database". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 587: 6. arXiv:1601.02909Freely accessible. Bibcode:2016A&A...587A..48D. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201527573. Retrieved 4 January 2017. 
  13. ^ a b c d e Waszczak, Adam; Chang, Chan-Kao; Ofek, Eran O.; Laher, Russ; Masci, Frank; Levitan, David; et al. (September 2015). "Asteroid Light Curves from the Palomar Transient Factory Survey: Rotation Periods and Phase Functions from Sparse Photometry". The Astronomical Journal. 150 (3): 35. arXiv:1504.04041Freely accessible. Bibcode:2015AJ....150...75W. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/150/3/75. Retrieved 4 January 2017. 
  14. ^ Veres, Peter; Jedicke, Robert; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Denneau, Larry; Granvik, Mikael; Bolin, Bryce; et al. (November 2015). "Absolute magnitudes and slope parameters for 250,000 asteroids observed by Pan-STARRS PS1 - Preliminary results". Icarus. 261: 34–47. arXiv:1506.00762Freely accessible. Bibcode:2015Icar..261...34V. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2015.08.007. Retrieved 4 January 2017. 
  15. ^ a b "1449 Virtanen (1938 DO)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 4 January 2017. 
  16. ^ "MPC/MPO/MPS Archive". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 4 January 2017. 

External links[edit]