1484 papal conclave

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Papal conclave
August 1484
Sede vacante.svg
Coat of arms during the vacancy of the Holy See
Dates and location
26–29 August 1484
Apostolic Palace, Papal States
Key officials
DeanRodrigo Borja
CamerlengoRaffaele Riario
ProtodeaconFrancesco Todeschini-Piccolomini
Elected Pope
Giovanni Battista Cybo
Name taken: Innocent VIII
Innocent VIII 1492.JPG

The papal conclave of 1484 (August 26–29) elected Pope Innocent VIII after the death of Pope Sixtus IV.

The election[edit]

At the death of Sixtus IV, the conclave of cardinals that met to elect his successor numbered thirty-two cardinals.[1]

The immediate context of the election was the nearly unprecedented packing of the College of Cardinals by Sixtus IV, not only in terms of overall size, but also in terms of cardinal-nephews and crown cardinals.[2] As a result, nearly all of the non-Venetian cardinals supported the continuation of Sixtus IV's policies of isolation towards the Republic of Venice, specifically the Peace of Bagnolo.[2] However, the two factions of cardinals differed over whether the church ought to prioritize the continuation of the Italian League or should prioritize papal power (especially vis-a-vis Naples) over the preservation of the peace.[2] Cardinal Borja led the first faction and Cardinal della Rovere, the second; these factions were roughly aligned with the Orsini and Colonna families, respectively.[2]

The conclave was carried out by the largest non-schismatic College since the eleventh century.[2] Because of an intense dispute between the Colonna and Orsini, the city of Rome was marked by far more civil unrest during the sede vacante than was to be expected historically. While Count Girolamo Riario was away besieging a Colonna stronghold, his palace was sacked and his wife fled to the Castel S. Angelo. Upon his return to the city Count Riario joined his wife and held the Castel until persuaded to withdraw from the city with payment of 4000 ducats.[3]

In order to prevent the selection of Cardinal Barbo, on the evening before the election, after the cardinals retired for the night, the Dean of the College of Cardinals, Cardinal Giuliano della Rovere, nephew of the late Pope, and Cardinal Borgia, the Vice-Chancellor, visited a number of cardinals and secured their votes with the promise of various benefices.

Cardinal electors[edit]

Elector Nationality Order Title Elevated Elevator Notes
Rodrigo Borja Spanish Cardinal-bishop Bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina, administrator of Valencia 20 February 1456 Callixtus III Dean of the College of Cardinals; Vice-Chancellor of the Holy Roman Church; future Pope Alexander VI; cardinal-nephew
Giuliano della Rovere Ligurian Cardinal-bishop Bishop of Ostia e Velletri, bishop of Bologna, administrator of Avignon 15 December 1471 Sixtus IV Grand Penitentiary, Future Pope Julius II; cardinal-nephew
Oliviero Carafa Neapolitan Cardinal-bishop Bishop of Albano 18 September 1467 Paul II
Marco Barbo Venetian Cardinal-bishop Bishop of Palestrina, patriarch of Aquileia 18 September 1467 Paul II Cardinal-nephew
Giovanni Battista Zeno Venetian Cardinal-bishop Bishop of Frascati 21 November 1468 Paul II Cardinal-nephew
Giovanni Michiel Venetian Cardinal-priest Title of S. Marcello 21 November 1468 Paul II Cardinal-nephew
Stefano Nardini Forlì Cardinal-priest Title of S. Maria in Trastevere, archbishop of Milan 7 May 1473 Sixtus IV
Giovanni Battista Cibo Ligurian Cardinal-priest Title of S. Cecilia, bishop of Molfetta 7 May 1473 Sixtus IV Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals; Elected Pope Innocent VIII
Giovanni Arcimboldo Milanese Cardinal-priest Title of S. Prassede, bishop of Novara 7 May 1473 Sixtus IV
Philibert Hugonet French Cardinal-priest Title of Ss. Giovanni e Paulo, bishop of Macon 7 May 1473 Sixtus IV
Jorge da Costa, O.Cist. Portuguese Cardinal-priest Title of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro, archbishop of Lisbon 18 December 1476 Sixtus IV
Girolamo Basso della Rovere Ligurian Cardinal-priest Title of S. Crisogono, bishop of Recanati 10 December 1477 Sixtus IV Cardinal-nephew
Pietro Foscari Venetian Cardinal-priest Title of S. Nicola fra le Immagini 25 March 1471 (in pectore), 10 December1477 Paul II (in pectore), Sixtus IV
Giovanni d'Aragona Neapolitan Cardinal-priest Title of S. Sabina 10 December 1477 Sixtus IV
Raffaele Riario Ligurian Cardinal-priest Title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso 10 December 1477 Sixtus IV Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church; Cardinal-nephew
Domenico della Rovere Turinese Cardinal-priest Title of S. Clemente, archbishop of Turin 10 February 1478 Sixtus IV
Giovanni Conti Roman Cardinal-priest Title of Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo, archbishop of Conza 15 November 1483 Sixtus IV
Juan Margarit i Pau Spanish Cardinal-priest Title of S. Vitale, bishop of Gerona 15 November 1483 Sixtus IV
Giovanni Giacomo Sclafenati Milanese Cardinal-priest Title of S. Stefano al Monte Celio, bishop of Parma 15 November 1483 Sixtus IV
Francesco Todeschini-Piccolomini Sienese Cardinal-deacon Deacon of S. Eustachio, bishop of Siena 5 March 1460 Pius II Protodeacon; Future Pope Pius III
Gabriele Rangone, O.Min.Obs. Cardinal-deacon Deacon of Ss. Sergio e Bacco, bishop of Agrigento 10 December 1477 Sixtus IV
Giovanni Battista Savelli Roman Cardinal-deacon Deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano 15 May 1480 Sixtus IV
Giovanni Colonna Roman Cardinal-deacon Deacon of S. Maria in Aquiro 15 May 1480 Sixtus IV
Giambattista Orsini Roman Cardinal-deacon Deacon of S. Maria Nuova 15 November 1483 Sixtus IV
Ascanio Sforza Milanese Cardinal-deacon Deacon of Ss. Vito e Modesto 17 March 1484 Sixtus IV

Absentee cardinals[edit]

Elector Nationality Order Title Elevated Elevator Notes
Luis Juan del Milà Spanish Cardinal-priest Title of Ss. IV Coronati, bishop of Lérida 17 September 1456 Callixtus III
Thomas Bourchier English Cardinal-priest Title of S. Ciriaco, Archbishop of Canterbury 18 September 1467 Paul II
Jean Balue French Cardinal-bishop Title of S. Susanna, Bishop of Albano, bishop of Angers 18 September 1467 Paul II
Pedro González de Mendoza Spanish Cardinal-priest Title of S. Croce in Gerusalemme, archbishop of Sevilla and administrator of Sigùenza 7 May 1473 Sixtus IV
Charles II, Duke of Bourbon French Cardinal-priest Title of Ss. Silvestro e Martino ai Monti, archbishop of Lyon 18 December 1476 Sixtus IV
Pierre de Foix, le jeune French Cardinal-deacon Deacon of Ss. Cosma e Damiano, bishop of Vannes 18 December 1476 Sixtus IV
Paolo Fregoso Genoese Cardinal-priest Title of S. Anastasia, archbishop of Genoa 15 May 1480 Sixtus IV

Notes[edit]