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|1491 by topic|
|Arts and science|
|Birth and death categories|
|Births – Deaths|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Establishments – Disestablishments|
|Art and literature|
|1491 in poetry|
|Ab urbe condita||2244|
|Balinese saka calendar||1412–1413|
|English Regnal year||6 Hen. 7 – 7 Hen. 7|
|Chinese calendar||庚戌年 (Metal Dog)
4187 or 4127
— to —
辛亥年 (Metal Pig)
4188 or 4128
|- Vikram Samvat||1547–1548|
|- Shaka Samvat||1412–1413|
|- Kali Yuga||4591–4592|
|Japanese calendar||Entoku 3
|Minguo calendar||421 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2033–2034|
1617 or 1236 or 464
— to —
1618 or 1237 or 465
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1491.|
- May 3 – The ruler of the Kingdom of Kongo, Nkuwu Nzinga, is baptised by Portuguese missionaries, adopting the baptismal name of João I.
- September – Battle of Vrpile Gulch in southern Croatia: Forces of the Ottoman Empire are defeated by those of the Kingdom of Croatia.
- November – The pretender Perkin Warbeck begins a campaign to take the English throne, with a landing in Ireland.
- November 7 – Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor and King Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary sign the Peace of Pressburg, formally ending the Austrian–Hungarian War.
- November 16 – An auto-da-fé held in Brasero de la Dehesa (outside Ávila) concludes the case of the Holy Child of La Guardia, with the execution of several Jewish and converso suspects.
- November 25 – Reconquista: The Granada War is effectively brought to an end (and the Siege of Granada extended for 2 months) with the signing of the Treaty of Granada between the Catholic Monarchs of Spain and the Moorish Emirate of Granada.
- December 6 – King Charles VIII of France marries Anne of Brittany, forcing her to break her marriage with Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, thus incorporating Brittany into the kingdom of France.
- December 21 – The Truce of Coldstream secures a 5-year peace, between Scotland and England.
- The Bread and Cheese Revolt breaks out in North Holland.
- A major fire breaks out in Dresden.
- In the Russian territory of Komi (now the Komi Republic), annexed by Russia in 1478, copper and silver ores are discovered, and the territory gains importance as a mining and metallurgical center.
- Nicolaus Copernicus enters the University of Kraków.
- January 30 – Francesco Sforza, Italian noble (d. 1512)
- March 25 – Marie d'Albret, Countess of Rethel, French nobility (d. 1549)
- May 10 – Suzanne, Duchess of Bourbon (d. 1521)
- June 28 – Henry VIII of England (d. 1547)
- August 3 – Maria of Jülich-Berg, spouse of John III, Duke of Cleves (d. 1543)
- August 10 – Queen Janggyeong, Korean royal consort (d. 1515)
- August 25 – Innocenzo Cybo, Catholic cardinal (d. 1550)
- October 6 – Francis de Bourbon, Count of St. Pol, French noble (d. 1545)
- October 26 – Zhengde Emperor of China (d. 1521)
- November 8 – Teofilo Folengo, Italian poet (d. 1544)
- November 11 – Martin Bucer, German Protestant reformer (d. 1551)
- December 13 – Martín de Azpilcueta, Spanish theologian and economist (d. 1586)
- December 31 – Jacques Cartier, French explorer (d. 1557)
- date unknown
- Isabella Losa, Spanish scholar (d. 1564)
- January 19 – Dorothea of Brandenburg, Duchess of Mecklenburg (b. 1420)
- February 15 – Ashikaga Yoshimi, brother of Shogun Ashikaga Yoshimasa (b. 1439)
- February 19 – Enno I, Count of East Frisia (1466–1491) (b. 1460)
- March 6 – Richard Woodville, 3rd Earl Rivers
- March 31 – Bonaventura Tornielli, Italian Roman Catholic priest (b. 1411)
- May 14 – Filippo Strozzi the Elder, Italian banker (b. 1428)
- July 13 – Afonso, Prince of Portugal (b. 1475)
- July 16 – William Herbert, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, English earl (b. 1451)
- October 5 – Jean Balue, French cardinal and statesman (b. c. 1421)
- October 12 – Fritz Herlen, German artist (b. 1449)
- December 28 – Bertoldo di Giovanni, Italian sculptor (b. c. 1435)
- date unknown – John de la Pole, 2nd Duke of Suffolk (b. 1442)