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14th century

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Tamerlane the Conqueror, the founder of the Timurid Empire.

The 14th century lasted from 1 January 1301 (represented by the Roman numerals MCCCI) to 31 December 1400 (MCD). It is estimated that the century witnessed the death of more than 45 million lives from political and natural disasters in both Europe and the Mongol Empire.[1][2] West Africa experienced economic growth and prosperity.

In Europe, the Black Death claimed 25 million lives – wiping out one third of the European population[3] – while the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of France fought in the protracted Hundred Years' War after the death of King Charles IV of France led to a claim to the French throne by King Edward III of England. This period is considered the height of chivalry and marks the beginning of strong separate identities for both England and France as well as the foundation of the Italian Renaissance and the Ottoman Empire.

In Asia, Tamerlane (Timur), established the Timurid Empire, history's third largest empire to have been ever established by a single conqueror.[citation needed] Scholars estimate that Timur's military campaigns caused the deaths of 17 million people, amounting to about 5% of the world population at the time. Synchronously, the Timurid Renaissance emerged. In the Arab world, historian and political scientist Ibn Khaldun and explorer Ibn Battuta made significant contributions. In India, the Bengal Sultanate separated from the Delhi Sultanate, a major trading nation in the world. The sultanate was described by the Europeans as the richest country to trade with.[4] The Mongol court was driven out of China and retreated to Mongolia, the Ilkhanate collapsed, the Chaghatayid dissolved and broke into two parts, and the Golden Horde lost its position as a great power in Eastern Europe.

In Africa, the wealthy Mali Empire, a huge producer of gold, reached its territorial and economic height under the reign of Mansa Musa I of Mali, the wealthiest individual of medieval times, and perhaps the wealthiest ever.[5][6]

In the Americas, the Mexica founded the city of Tenochtitlan, while the Mississippian mound city of Cahokia was abandoned.


Mansa Musa I of Mali, described as the wealthiest individual in history [5][6]
Europe in 1328
The successor states of the Mongol Empire in 1335: the Ilkhanate, Golden Horde, Yuan dynasty and Chagatai Khanate.
Burying coffins of Black Death victims in Tournai.
This 14th-century statue from Tamil Nadu, present day India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). It is housed in the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C.
The Portuguese interregnum, Battle of Aljubarrota between the Portuguese and Castilians in 1385.


Timur defeats the Sultan of Delhi, Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud Shah Tughluq, in the winter of 1397–1398, painting dated 1595–1600.



Inventions, discoveries, introductions



  1. ^ "History of Europe - Crisis, Recovery, Resilience | Britannica". www.britannica.com. Retrieved 2023-12-28.
  2. ^ "The Black Death in Asia, Europe, and Africa" (PDF). Oxford University Press. Retrieved December 28, 2023.
  3. ^ Black Death, Encyclopædia Britannica
  4. ^ Nanda, J. N (2005). Bengal: the unique state. Concept Publishing Company. p. 10. 2005. ISBN 978-81-8069-149-2. Bengal [...] was rich in the production and export of grain, salt, fruit, liquors and wines, precious metals and ornaments besides the output of its handlooms in silk and cotton. Europe referred to Bengal as the richest country to trade with.
  5. ^ a b Thad Morgan, "This 14th-Century African Emperor Remains the Richest Person in History" Archived 2019-05-01 at the Wayback Machine, History.com, March 19, 2018
  6. ^ a b Davidson, Jacob (July 30, 2015). "The 10 Richest People of All Time". Money.com. Archived from the original on June 9, 2022. Retrieved January 5, 2017.
  7. ^ a b c d e Ricklefs (1991), page 18
  8. ^ "Asian maritime & trade chronology to 1700 CE". Maritime Asia.
  9. ^ Howard, Jenny (2020-07-06). "Plague was one of history's deadliest diseases—then we found a cure". National Geographic. Archived from the original on March 5, 2021. Retrieved 2022-08-27.
  10. ^ Kern, J.H.C., (1907), De wij-inscriptie op het Amoghapāça-beeld van Padang Candi(Batang Hari-districten); 1269 Çaka, Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal-, Land-, en Volkenkunde.
  11. ^ Drs. R. Soekmono; et al. (1988) [1973]. Pengantar Sejarah Kebudayaan Indonesia 2, 2nd ed (5th reprint ed.). Yogyakarta: Penerbit Kanisius. p. 72.
  12. ^ Macdonnel, Arthur Anthony (1900). " Sanskrit Literature and the West.". A History of Sanskrit Literature. New York: D. Appleton and Co. p. 420.
  13. ^ Chirikure, S.; et al. (2017). "What was the population of Great Zimbabwe (CE1000 – 1800)". PLOS ONE. 12 (6): e0178335. Bibcode:2017PLoSO..1278335C. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0178335. PMC 5470674. PMID 28614397.
  14. ^ Kuklick, Henrika (1991). "Contested monuments: the politics of archaeology in southern Africa". In George W. Stocking (ed.). Colonial situations: essays on the contextualization of ethnographic knowledge. Univ of Wisconsin Press. pp. 135–170. ISBN 978-0-299-13124-1.
  15. ^ "pound lock". August 15, 2011. Archived from the original on 2011-08-15.