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|1510 by topic|
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- January – Catherine of Aragon gives birth to her first child, a stillborn daughter.
- January 23 – An 18-year-old Henry VIII of England jousts anonymously at Richmond, Surrey and draws applause, before revealing himself.
- February 27 – Afonso de Albuquerque of Portugal conquers Goa.
- May 12 – The Prince of Anhua rebellion begins when Zhu Zhifan, Prince of Anhua, kills all the officials invited to a banquet, and declares his intent on ousting the powerful Ming dynasty eunuch Liu Jin, during the reign of the Zhengde Emperor in China.
- May 30 – Rebel leader Zhu Zhifan is defeated and captured by commander Qiu Yue, ending the Prince of Anhua rebellion.
- July – The Holy League, formed to defend the Italian States, attacks French-occupied Genoa.
- December 2 – Battle of Marv: Shah Ismail I defeats the Uzbek forces of Shaybani Khan, in Khorasan.
- The Grand Prince of Moscow Vasili III conquers Pskov.
- Peter Henlein builds the first pocket watch.
- Sir Thomas More becomes undersheriff of the City of London.
- Paolo Cortese publishes De Cardinalatu, a manual for cardinals, including advice on palatial architecture – which inspires Thomas Wolsey in his construction work at Hampton Court Palace.
- Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa moves to Italy.
- Sunflowers are brought to Europe.
- February 24 – Costanzo II Sforza, Italian noble (d. 1512)
- March 25 – Guillaume Postel, French linguist (d. 1581)
- March 30 – Antonio de Cabezón, Spanish composer and organist (d. 1566)
- June 6 – Giovanni Battista Cicala, Italian Catholic cardinal (d. 1570)
- June 22 – Alessandro de' Medici, Duke of Florence (d. 1537)
- August 11 – Margaret Paleologa, Sovereign Marchioness of Montferrat (1531–1540) (d. 1566)
- August 24 – Elisabeth of Brandenburg, Duchess of Brunswick-Calenberg-Göttingen (1525–1540) (d. 1558)
- October 6
- October 25 – Renée of France, French princess (d. 1574)
- October 28 – Francis Borgia, Spanish General of the Jesuits (d. 1572)
- December 28 – Nicholas Bacon, English politician (d. 1579)
- date unknown
- Jan Matsys, Flemish painter (d. 1575)
- Jörg Breu the Younger, German painter (d. 1547)
- Ferenc Dávid, Hungarian founder of the Unitarian Church (d. 1579)
- Matsunaga Hisahide, Japanese warlord (d. 1577)
- Solomon Luria, Polish-born Kabbalist (d. 1574)
- Oda Nobuhide, Japanese warlord (d. 1551)
- Bernard Palissy, French potter and writer
- Ambroise Paré, French surgeon (d. 1590)
- Nicolas Durand de Villegaignon, French naval officer (d. 1571)
- Pierre de Manchicourt, Flemish composer (d. 1564)
- Gracia Mendes Nasi, Ottoman businessperson and philanthropist (d. 1569)
- Beatriz de la Cueva, Governor of Guatemala (d. 1541)
- Francisco Vázquez de Coronado, Spanish conquistador (d. 1554)
- Tullia d'Aragona, Italian poet, author and philosopher (d. 1556)
- Aloysius Lilius, Italian inventor of the Gregorian calendar (d. 1576)
- Luis de Morales, Spanish religious painter (d. 1586)
- Lope de Rueda, Spanish dramatist and author (d. 1565)
- Lawrence Sheriff, Elizabethan gentleman and grocer (d. 1567)
- Claudio Veggio, Italian composer
- John Knox, Scottish reformer (d. 1572 )
- February 1 – Sidonie of Poděbrady, Bohemian princess, duchess consort of Saxony (b. 1449)
- February 28 – Juan de la Cosa, Spanish cartographer and explorer (b. c. 1460)
- March 1 – Francisco de Almeida, Portuguese soldier and explorer (b. c. 1450)
- March 10 – Johann Geiler von Kaisersberg, German preacher (b. 1445)
- March 12 – Mihnea cel Rău, Prince of Wallachia (b. c.1460)
- May 17 – Sandro Botticelli, Italian painter (b. 1445)
- July 10 – Catherine Cornaro, Queen of Cyprus (b. 1454)
- July 14 – Arthur Stewart, Duke of Rothesay, heir to the Scottish throne (b. 1509)
- July 27 – Giovanni Sforza, Italian condottiere (b. 1466)
- August 17
- September 15 – Saint Catherine of Genoa (b. 1447)
- September 18 – Ursula of Brandenburg, Duchess of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (b. 1488)
- November 11 – Bohuslav Hasištejnský z Lobkovic, Bohemian writer (b. 1461)
- December 2 – Muhammad Shaybani, Khan of Bukhara (b. 1451)
- December 14 – Friedrich of Saxony (b. 1473)
- December 31 – Bianca Maria Sforza, Holy Roman Empress (b. 1472)
- date unknown