1517 Beograd

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1517 Beograd
Discovery [1]
Discovered by M. B. Protić
Discovery site Belgrade Obs.
Discovery date 20 March 1938
MPC designation (1517) Beograd
Named after
Belgrade (capital city)[2]
1938 FD · 1931 VF
1934 JF · 1935 ST
1942 CD · 1952 JG
1952 KM1 · 1971 VT
1978 EW6
main-belt (middle)[3]
Padua family [4][5]
Orbital characteristics[1]
Epoch 16 February 2017 (JD 2457800.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc 84.98 yr (31,038 days)
Aphelion 2.8393 AU
Perihelion 2.5944 AU
2.7168 AU
Eccentricity 0.0451
4.48 yr (1,636 days)
0° 13m 12.36s / day
Inclination 5.2772°
Physical characteristics
Dimensions 30.97±9.33 km[6]
36.16±1.9 km (IRAS:20)[7]
37.90±0.48 km[8]
39.524±0.219 km[9]
42.003±0.213 km[10]
6.943±0.004 h[11]
6.9490±0.0006 h[12]
0.0491±0.005 (IRAS:20)[7]
SMASS = X[1]
P[10] · X[3]
11.1[3][6][7][8][10] · 11.23±0.66[13]

1517 Beograd, provisional designation 1938 FD, is a dark Paduan asteroid from the middle region of the asteroid belt, approximately 36 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 20 March 1938, by Serbian astronomer Milorad Protić at Belgrade Astronomical Observatory in Serbia.[14] It is named after the city Belgrade.[2]


Beograd is member of the small Padua family, an asteroid family named after 363 Padua and at least 25 million years old. It consists of mostly X-type asteroids, that were previously associated to 110 Lydia, which is the namesake of the Lydia family. Together with the Agnia family, the Padua family is the only other family to have most of its members in a nonlinear secular resonance configuration with more than 75% of its members in a z1 librating state.[4][5]

This asteroid orbits the Sun at a distance of 2.6–2.8 AU once every 4 years and 6 months (1,636 days). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.05 and an inclination of 5° with respect to the ecliptic.[1] In 1931, Beograd was first identified as 1931 VF at Uccle Observatory, extending the body's observation arc by 7 years prior to its official discovery observation at Belgrade.[14]

French amateur astronomer Laurent Bernasconi obtained a light-curve of Beograd from photometric observations taken in March 2005. Light-curve analysis gave a rotation period of 6.943 hours with a brightness variation of 0.18 magnitude (U=2).[11] In April 2014, a light-curve obtained by Vladimir Benishek at the discovering Belgrade Observatory gave a concurring period of 6.9490 hours with an amplitude of 0.23 magnitude (U=2).[12]

According to the surveys carried out by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite IRAS, the Japanese Akari satellite, and NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer with its subsequent NEOWISE mission, Beograd measures between 30.97 and 42.00 kilometers in diameter, and its surface has an albedo between 0.036 and 0.07.[6][8][9][10] The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link adopts the results from IRAS, that is, an albedo of 0.0491 and a diameter of 36.16 kilometers using an absolute magnitude of 11.1.[3][7] Beograd is classified as an X-type asteroid in the SMASS taxonomy, while NEOWISE classifies it as a reddish P-type due to its low albedo.[10]

This minor planet was named by the discoverer in honor of his native city and the capital of his country, Belgrade.[2] Naming citation was published before November 1977 (M.P.C. 2277).[15]


  1. ^ a b c d "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 1517 Beograd (1938 FD)" (2016-11-08 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 3 January 2017. 
  2. ^ a b c Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (1517) Beograd. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 121. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3. Retrieved 3 January 2017. 
  3. ^ a b c d "LCDB Data for (1517) Beograd". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 3 January 2017. 
  4. ^ a b Carruba, V. (May 2009). "The (not so) peculiar case of the Padua family". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 395 (1): 358–377. Bibcode:2009MNRAS.395..358C. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.14523.x. Retrieved 7 December 2015. 
  5. ^ a b Carruba, V.; Domingos, R. C.; Nesvorný, D.; Roig, F.; Huaman, M. E.; Souami, D. (August 2013). "A multidomain approach to asteroid families' identification". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 433 (3): 2075–2096. arXiv:1305.4847Freely accessible. Bibcode:2013MNRAS.433.2075C. doi:10.1093/mnras/stt884. Retrieved 3 January 2017. 
  6. ^ a b c d Nugent, C. R.; Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Bauer, J.; Cutri, R. M.; Grav, T.; et al. (December 2015). "NEOWISE Reactivation Mission Year One: Preliminary Asteroid Diameters and Albedos". The Astrophysical Journal. 814 (2): 13. arXiv:1509.02522Freely accessible. Bibcode:2015ApJ...814..117N. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/814/2/117. Retrieved 3 January 2017. 
  7. ^ a b c d Tedesco, E. F.; Noah, P. V.; Noah, M.; Price, S. D. (October 2004). "IRAS Minor Planet Survey V6.0". NASA Planetary Data System. Bibcode:2004PDSS...12.....T. Retrieved 3 January 2017. 
  8. ^ a b c d Usui, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Müller, Thomas G.; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ootsubo, Takafumi; et al. (October 2011). "Asteroid Catalog Using Akari: AKARI/IRC Mid-Infrared Asteroid Survey" (PDF). Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 63 (5): 1117–1138. Bibcode:2011PASJ...63.1117U. doi:10.1093/pasj/63.5.1117. Retrieved 3 January 2017. 
  9. ^ a b c Masiero, Joseph R.; Grav, T.; Mainzer, A. K.; Nugent, C. R.; Bauer, J. M.; Stevenson, R.; et al. (August 2014). "Main-belt Asteroids with WISE/NEOWISE: Near-infrared Albedos". The Astrophysical Journal. 791 (2): 11. arXiv:1406.6645Freely accessible. Bibcode:2014ApJ...791..121M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/791/2/121. Retrieved 3 January 2017. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f Mainzer, A.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; Hand, E.; Bauer, J.; Tholen, D.; et al. (November 2011). "NEOWISE Studies of Spectrophotometrically Classified Asteroids: Preliminary Results" (PDF). The Astrophysical Journal. 741 (2): 25. arXiv:1109.6407Freely accessible. Bibcode:2011ApJ...741...90M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/741/2/90. Retrieved 3 January 2017. 
  11. ^ a b Behrend, Raoul. "Asteroids and comets rotation curves – (1517) Beograd". Geneva Observatory. Retrieved 3 January 2017. 
  12. ^ a b Benishek, Vladimir; Pilcher, Frederick (October 2014). "Rotation Period Determination for the Main-belt Asteroid 1517 Beograd". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 41 (4): 263–264. Bibcode:2014MPBu...41..263B. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 3 January 2017. 
  13. ^ Veres, Peter; Jedicke, Robert; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Denneau, Larry; Granvik, Mikael; Bolin, Bryce; et al. (November 2015). "Absolute magnitudes and slope parameters for 250,000 asteroids observed by Pan-STARRS PS1 - Preliminary results". Icarus. 261: 34–47. arXiv:1506.00762Freely accessible. Bibcode:2015Icar..261...34V. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2015.08.007. Retrieved 3 January 2017. 
  14. ^ a b "1517 Beograd (1938 FD)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 3 January 2017. 
  15. ^ "MPC/MPO/MPS Archive". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 3 January 2017. 

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