1523 in science
- Pietro Aron publishes Thoscanello de la musica in Venice, including the first description of quarter-comma meantone.
- Anthony Fitzherbert publishes The Boke of Surveyinge and Improvements and The Boke of Husbandrie (the first work on agriculture published in England).
- Thomas Linacre publishes his translation of Galen's De naturalibus facultatibus in London.
- Maximilianus Transylvanus publishes De Moluccis Insulis, the first account of the Magellan circumnavigation.