1531 Lisbon earthquake
|Date||26 January 1531|
|Magnitude||6.4–7.1 Mw (est.)|
|Areas affected||Kingdom of Portugal|
|Max. intensity||X |
The 1531 Lisbon earthquake occurred in the Kingdom of Portugal on the morning of 26 January 1531, between 4 and 5 o'clock. The earthquake and subsequent tsunami resulted in approximately 30,000 deaths.
The earthquake is believed to have been caused by the Lower Tagus Fault Zone, and was preceded by a pair of foreshocks on 2 January and 7 January. Damage to the city, especially the downtown area, was severe: approximately one third of structures in the city were destroyed and 1000 lives were lost in the initial shock. The Ribeira Palace and São João Church were both completely destroyed.
Contemporary reports tell of flooding near the Tagus River, some ships being thrown onto rocks, and others grounded on the river's floor as the water retreated. Miranda et al. conclude that "These observations are coherent with the existence of a large change in the estuary seafloor, either tectonic displacement or a landslide."
The earthquake was followed by several strong aftershocks, and fear of another earthquake was intense. A rumor spread, apparently encouraged by the friars of Santarém, that the disaster was divine punishment and that the Jewish community was to blame. Poet and playwright Gil Vicente reportedly defused the situation, scolding the friars for their fear-mongering, and possibly averting a massacre of Jews and recent converts to Christianity.
The 1531 earthquake had been largely forgotten until the early 20th century. In 1909, a Portuguese newspaper reported the discovery of an unsigned manuscript of eyewitness accounts of the disaster. In 1919, a four-page letter addressed to the Marquis of Tarifa was found in a Lisbon bookshop, which appeared to describe the earthquake. Sousa's 1919 investigation of the 1755 Lisbon earthquake provided more evidence for the 1531 event, particularly his compilation of answers to the Marquis of Pombal's survey in the wake of the 1755 disaster, which included a question about previous earthquakes.
- Tucker, B.E., Erdik, Mustafa Özder, and Hwang, Christina N., ed. (1994). Issues in Urban Earthquake Risk. Springer. p. 266. ISBN 978-0792329145.
- Miranda, J., Batlló, J., Ferreira, H., Matias, L.M., and Baptista, M.A. (2012). "The 1531 Lisbon earthquake and tsunami" (PDF). 15 WCEE.
- Utsu, T. R. (2002), "A List of Deadly Earthquakes in the World: 1500-2000", International Handbook of Earthquake & Engineering Seismology, Part A, Volume 81A (First ed.), Academic Press, p. 691, ISBN 978-0124406520
- Justo, J. L., and Salwa, C. (1998). "The 1531 Lisbon earthquake". Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America (Seismological Society of America) 88 (2): 319.
- Bharatdwaj, K. (2006). Physical Geography: Introduction To Earth. Discovery Publishing House. p. 275. ISBN 9788183561631.
- Bandera, Cesareo (2010). Sacred Game: The Role of the Sacred in the Genesis of Modern Literary Fiction. Penn State Press. p. 44. ISBN 9780271042053.