1531 in science
- Autumn – Kõpu Lighthouse first lit on the Estonian island of Hiiumaa; it will remain in continuous use into the 21st century.
- June 1 – János Zsámboky, Hungarian physician and scholar (died 1584)
- Agostino Ramelli, Italian engineer (died c. 1600)
- Frucht, Richard C., ed. (2005). Eastern Europe: an introduction to the people, lands, and culture. ABC-CLIO. p. 62. ISBN 978-1-57607-800-6. Retrieved 2011-10-04.