1555 in science
- Pierre Belon publishes L'Histoire de la nature des oyseaux, a pioneering work in the comparative anatomy of birds.
- Richard Eden publishes The Decades of the Newe Worlde or West India, a translation into English of parts of Pietro Martire d'Anghiera's De orbe novo decades, Gonzalo Oviedo's Natural hystoria de las Indias and others.
- Guillaume Le Testu's Cosmographie Universelle selon les navigateurs, tant anciens que modernes contains maps of Terra Australis.
- Petrus Ramus publishes Arithmétique.
- June 13 – Giovanni Antonio Magini, Italian astronomer (died 1617)
- Andreas Libavius, German physician (died 1616)
- January 14 – Jacques Dubois, French anatomist (born 1478)
- May 25 – Gemma Frisius, Dutch mathematician and cartographer (born 1508)
- June 23 – Pedro Mascarenhas, Portuguese explorer (born 1470)
- August 8 – Oronce Finé, French mathematician and cartographer (born 1494)
- October 5 – Edward Wotton, English zoologist (born 1492)
- November 21 – Georgius Agricola, German metallurgist (born 1490)
- Petrus Gyllius, French traveller and ichthyologist (born 1490)
- Grun, Bernard (1991). The Timetables of History (3rd ed.). New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 245. ISBN 0-671-74919-6.
- Hadfield, Andrew (2004). "Eden, Richard (c.1520–1576)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/8454. Retrieved 2011-12-12. (subscription or UK public library membership required)