1559 Kustaanheimo

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1559 Kustaanheimo
1559Kustaanheimo (Lightcurve Inversion).png
Lightcurve-based 3D-model of Kustaanheimo
Discovery [1]
Discovered byL. Oterma
Discovery siteTurku Obs.
Discovery date20 January 1942
MPC designation(1559) Kustaanheimo
Named after
Paul Kustaanheimo
(Finnish astronomer)[2]
1942 BF · 1935 FP
1935 HB
main-belt · (inner)[3]
Orbital characteristics[1]
Epoch 4 September 2017 (JD 2458000.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc82.20 yr (30,023 days)
Aphelion2.7103 AU
Perihelion2.0702 AU
2.3903 AU
3.70 yr (1,350 days)
0° 16m 0.12s / day
Physical characteristics
Dimensions9.07±0.65 km[4]
10.725±0.176 km[5]
11.395±0.103 km[6]
12.39 km (calculated)[3]
12.70±0.85 km[7]
4.286±0.003 h[8]
4.3±0.1 h[a]
4.302±0.002 h[9]
4.30435 h[10]
0.20 (assumed)[3]
11.90[3][4][6][7] · 12.0[1]

1559 Kustaanheimo, provisional designation 1942 BF, is an stony asteroid from the inner regions of the asteroid belt, approximately 11 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 20 January 1942, by Finnish astronomer Liisi Oterma at the Iso-Heikkilä Observatory near Turku in southwest Finland.[11] The asteroid was named after Finnish astronomer Paul Kustaanheimo (1924–1997).

Orbit and classification[edit]

Kustaanheimo is an asteroid from the main belt's background population that does not belong to any known asteroid family. It orbits the Sun in the inner main-belt at a distance of 2.1–2.7 AU once every 3 years and 8 months (1,350 days). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.13 and an inclination of 3° with respect to the ecliptic.[1]

In March 1935, the asteroid was first identified as 1935 FP at the Union Observatory in Johannesburg. The body's observation arc begins at Johannesburg on the following month, with its identification as 1935 HB, almost 7 years prior to its official discovery observation at Turku.[11]

Physical characteristics[edit]

Kustaanheimo is an assumed stony S-type asteroid.[3]

Rotation period[edit]

In February 2005, a rotational lightcurve of Kustaanheimo was obtained from photometric observations by American astronomer John Menke at his Menke Observatory in Barnesville, Maryland (no obs. code). Lightcurve analysis gave a rotation period of 4.286 hours with a brightness variation of 0.25 magnitude (U=3).[8] One month later, another well-defined lightcurve by French amateur astronomer Laurent Bernasconi gave a period of 4.302 hours and an amplitude of 0.23 magnitude (U=3).[9] In April 2016, Petr Pravec obtained an intermediary period of 4.3 hours with a brightness variation of 0.29 at the Ondřejov Observatory (U=2).[a]

Spin axis[edit]

In 2013, an international study modeled a lightcurve with a similar period of 4.30435 hours and found two spin axis of (275.0°, 29.0°) and (94.0°, 33.0°) in ecliptic coordinates (λ, β) .[10]

Diameter and albedo[edit]

According to the surveys carried out by the Japanese Akari satellite and the NEOWISE mission of NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, Kustaanheimo measures between 9.07 and 12.70 kilometers in diameter and its surface has an albedo between 0.193 and 0.373.[4][5][6][7]

The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link assumes a standard albedo for stony asteroids of 0.20 and calculates a diameter of 12.39 kilometers based on an absolute magnitude of 11.9.[3]


This minor planet was named after Paul Kustaanheimo (1924–1997), a Finnish astronomer at the Helsinki University Observatory who made important contributions to celestial mechanics and the theory of relativity and best known for his K-S transformation. In 1969, he was appointed professor of astronomy at the University of Helsinki after the retirement of Gustaf Järnefelt (also see 1558 Järnefelt).[2][12]

The official naming citation was published by the Minor Planet Center before November 1977 (M.P.C. 3930).[13]


  1. ^ a b Lightcurve plot of (1559) Kustaanheimo by Petr Prave at Ondrejov Observatory (2016). Rotation period of 4.3 hours with an amplitude of 0.29 magnitude. Quality Code of 2. Summary figures at Ondrejov Asteroid Photometry Project and the LCDB


  1. ^ a b c d "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 1559 Kustaanheimo (1942 BF)" (2017-07-04 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 20 September 2017.
  2. ^ a b Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). "(1559) Kustaanheimo". Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (1559) Kustaanheimo. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 123. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-29925-7_1560. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g "LCDB Data for (1559) Kustaanheimo". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 20 September 2017.
  4. ^ a b c d Masiero, Joseph R.; Mainzer, A. K.; Grav, T.; Bauer, J. M.; Cutri, R. M.; Nugent, C.; et al. (November 2012). "Preliminary Analysis of WISE/NEOWISE 3-Band Cryogenic and Post-cryogenic Observations of Main Belt Asteroids". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 759 (1): 5. arXiv:1209.5794. Bibcode:2012ApJ...759L...8M. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/759/1/L8. Retrieved 20 September 2017.
  5. ^ a b c Masiero, Joseph R.; Grav, T.; Mainzer, A. K.; Nugent, C. R.; Bauer, J. M.; Stevenson, R.; et al. (August 2014). "Main-belt Asteroids with WISE/NEOWISE: Near-infrared Albedos". The Astrophysical Journal. 791 (2): 11. arXiv:1406.6645. Bibcode:2014ApJ...791..121M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/791/2/121. Retrieved 20 September 2017.
  6. ^ a b c d Mainzer, A.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; Hand, E.; Bauer, J.; Tholen, D.; et al. (November 2011). "NEOWISE Studies of Spectrophotometrically Classified Asteroids: Preliminary Results". The Astrophysical Journal. 741 (2): 25. arXiv:1109.6407. Bibcode:2011ApJ...741...90M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/741/2/90.
  7. ^ a b c d Usui, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Müller, Thomas G.; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ootsubo, Takafumi; et al. (October 2011). "Asteroid Catalog Using Akari: AKARI/IRC Mid-Infrared Asteroid Survey". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 63 (5): 1117–1138. Bibcode:2011PASJ...63.1117U. doi:10.1093/pasj/63.5.1117. Retrieved 20 September 2017.
  8. ^ a b Menke, John; Cooney, Walt; Gross, John; Terrell, Dirk; Higgins, David (October 2008). "Asteroid Lightcurve Analysis at Menke Observatory". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 35 (4): 155–160. Bibcode:2008MPBu...35..155M. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 20 September 2017.
  9. ^ a b Behrend, Raoul. "Asteroids and comets rotation curves – (1559) Kustaanheimo". Geneva Observatory. Retrieved 20 September 2017.
  10. ^ a b Hanus, J.; Durech, J.; Broz, M.; Marciniak, A.; Warner, B. D.; Pilcher, F.; et al. (March 2013). "Asteroids' physical models from combined dense and sparse photometry and scaling of the YORP effect by the observed obliquity distribution". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 551: 16. arXiv:1301.6943. Bibcode:2013A&A...551A..67H. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201220701. Retrieved 20 September 2017.
  11. ^ a b "1559 Kustaanheimo (1942 BF)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 20 September 2017.
  12. ^ Hannu Karttunen. "Observatory museum Biographies: 1900s — Kustaanheimo, Paul (1924–1997)". University of Helsinky. Archived from the original on 16 June 2011.
  13. ^ "MPC/MPO/MPS Archive". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 20 September 2017.

External links[edit]