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This article is about the year 1566.
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|Centuries:||15th century – 16th century – 17th century|
|Decades:||1530s 1540s 1550s – 1560s – 1570s 1580s 1590s|
|Years:||1563 1564 1565 – 1566 – 1567 1568 1569|
|1566 by topic|
|Arts and science|
|Lists of leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Ab urbe condita||2319|
|English Regnal year||8 Eliz. 1 – 9 Eliz. 1|
|Chinese calendar||乙丑年 (Wood Ox)
4262 or 4202
— to —
丙寅年 (Fire Tiger)
4263 or 4203
|- Vikram Samvat||1622–1623|
|- Shaka Samvat||1488–1489|
|- Kali Yuga||4667–4668|
|Japanese calendar||Eiroku 9
|Minguo calendar||346 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2108–2109|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1566.|
- January 7 – Pope Pius V succeeds Pope Pius IV as the 225th pope.
- March 28 – The foundation stone of Valletta, which will become Malta's capital city, is laid by Jean Parisot de Valette, Grand Master of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta.
- April 5 – The Compromise of Nobles is presented to Margaret of Parma, Governor of the Habsburg Netherlands, but succeeds only in delaying the beginning of the Eighty Years' War in the Netherlands.
- August 5 – The Siege of Szigetvár is begun by Suleiman the Magnificent, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire.
- August 10 – Beeldenstorm: Outbreak of destruction by Calvinists of religious art in the Low Countries.
- September 7 – Suleiman the Magnificent dies in his tent at the Siege of Szigetvár and Selim II succeeds him as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire.
- September 7 – The Siege of Szigetvár ends in battle with 2,300 Hungarian and Croatian defenders including their general, Nikola Šubić Zrinski, annihilated by an army of 90,000 soldiers of the Ottoman Empire under Sokollu Mehmed Pasha.
- The Spanish gold escudo, worth 16 silver reales, is first minted during the reign of Philip II of Spain.
- Pope Pius V expels most prostitutes from Rome.
- Between July 19, 1566 and July 7, 1567 – The first bridge crossing the Neretva river at Mostar (in modern-day Bosnia and Herzegovina) is completed by the Ottoman Empire. The white marble bridge becomes known as Stari Most ("Old Bridge").
- March 8 – Carlo Gesualdo, Italian music composer (d. 1611)
- May 26 – Mehmed III, Ottoman Emperor (d. 1603)
- June 19 – King James VI of Scotland/James I of England and Ireland (d. 1625)
- June 20 – King Sigismund III Vasa of Poland and Sweden (d. 1632)
- August 12 – Infanta Isabella Clara Eugenia of Spain (d. 1633)
- September 1 – Edward Alleyn, English actor (d. 1626)
- October 13 – Richard Boyle, 1st Earl of Cork, Irish politician (d. 1643)
- December 11 – (baptised) – Manuel Cardoso, Portuguese composer (d. 1650)
- December 20 – Edward Wightman, English Baptist martyr (d. 1612)
- December 22 – Jan Jesenius, Slovak physician (d. 1621)
- date unknown
- January 7 – Louis de Blois, Flemish mystical writer (b. 1506)
- February 3 – George Cassander, Flemish theologian (b. 1513)
- March 9 – David Rizzio, Italian secretary of Mary, Queen of Scots (b. 1533)
- March 26 – Antonio de Cabezón, Spanish composer and organist (b. 1510)
- March 28 – Sigismund von Herberstein, Austrian diplomat (b. 1486)
- April 25 – Diane de Poitiers, mistress of King Henry II of France (b. 1499)
- April 25 – Louise Labé, French poet (b. 1525)
- May 4 – Luca Ghini, Italian physician and botanist (b. 1490)
- May 10 – Leonhart Fuchs, German physician and a botanist (b. 1501)
- July 2 – Nostradamus, French astrologer (b. 1503)
- July 13 – Thomas Hoby, English diplomat and translator (b. 1530)
- July 17 – Bartolomé de Las Casas, Spanish priest (b. 1484)
- July 30 – Guillaume Rondelet, French doctor (b. 1507)
- September 2 – Taddeo Zuccari, Italian painter (b. 1529)
- September 7 – Suleiman the Magnificent, Ottoman Sultan since 1520 (b. 1494)
- September 22 – Johannes Agricola, German Protestant reformer (b. 1494)
- September 27 – Marco Girolamo Vida, Italian poet (b. 1490)
- December 26 – Kimotsuki Kanetsugu, Japanese samurai (b. 1511)
- date unknown
- probable - Jacob Acontius, Swiss jurist, theologian, philosopher and engineer (b. 1492)