1566 in art
- August 10 - Beeldenstorm: At the end of a pilgrimage from Hondschoote to Steenvoorde, the chapel of the Sint-Laurensklooster is defaced by a crowd. It is the start of a period of several weeks of violent iconoclasm in which paintings and church decorations and fittings are destroyed throughout the Low Countries.
- Pieter Bruegel the Elder begins painting The Massacre of the Innocents (1566-1567).
- Giuseppe Arcimboldo returns to the Italian city-states.
- An epitaph to Elisabeth of Brandenburg, Duchess of Brunswick-Calenberg-Göttingen, designed by Sigmund Linger, is erected in the St. Giles Chapel of the St. John's Church in Schleusingen.
- Giuseppe Arcimboldo
- Pieter Bruegel the Elder - The Census at Bethlehem
- Hans Eworth - Nicholas Heath, Archbishop of York
- Paolo Veronese - altarpiece of Jesus' baptism, at the cathedral of Lignano Sabbiadoro
- January 15 - Philipp Uffenbach, German painter and etcher (died 1636)
- date unknown
- Giovanni Baglione, Italian early baroque painter and historian of art (died 1643)
- Abraham Bloemaert, Dutch painter and printmaker (died 1651)
- Domenico Carpinoni, Italian painter of primarily religious works (died 1658)
- Johann Matthias Kager, German painter (died 1634)
- Santo Peranda, a historical painter of Venice (died 1638)
- Joachim Wtewael, Dutch painter and engraver (died 1638)
- April 4 - Daniele da Volterra, Italian mannerist painter and sculptor (born c.1509)
- April 16 - Juan Correa de Vivar, Spanish Renaissance (Renacimiento) painter (born c.1510)
- August - Lambert Lombard, Flemish Renaissance painter, architect and theorist for the Prince-Bishopric of Liège (born 1505)
- August 4 - Girolamo della Robbia, Italian ceramicist (born 1488)
- date unknown