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This article is about the year 1568.
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|Centuries:||15th century – 16th century – 17th century|
|Decades:||1530s 1540s 1550s – 1560s – 1570s 1580s 1590s|
|Years:||1565 1566 1567 – 1568 – 1569 1570 1571|
|1568 by topic|
|Arts and science|
|Lists of leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Ab urbe condita||2321|
|English Regnal year||10 Eliz. 1 – 11 Eliz. 1|
|Chinese calendar||丁卯年 (Fire Rabbit)
4264 or 4204
— to —
戊辰年 (Earth Dragon)
4265 or 4205
|- Vikram Samvat||1624–1625|
|- Shaka Samvat||1489–1490|
|- Kali Yuga||4668–4669|
|Japanese calendar||Eiroku 11
|Minguo calendar||344 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2110–2111|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1568.|
- January 6–January 13 – In the Eastern Hungarian Kingdom the Diet of Torda declares religious freedom firstly in Europe.
- February 17 – Treaty of Adrianople (sometimes called the Peace of Adrianople): The Habsburgs agree to pay tribute to the Ottomans.
- March 23 – The Peace of Longjumeau ends the Second War of Religion in France. Again Catherine de' Medici and Charles IX make substantial concessions to the Huguenots.
- May 2 – Mary, Queen of Scots, escapes from Loch Leven Castle.
- May 13 – Battle of Langside: The forces of Mary, Queen of Scots, are defeated by a confederacy of Scottish Protestants under James Stewart, Earl of Moray, her half-brother.
- May 16 – Mary, Queen of Scots, flees to England.
- May 19 – Queen Elizabeth I of England arrests Mary, Queen of Scots.
- May 23 – Battle of Heiligerlee: Troops under Louis of Nassau, brother of William I of Orange, defeat a smaller loyalist force under the Duke of Arenberg in an attempt to invade the Northern Netherlands. This is effectively the start of the Eighty Years' War.
- July 21 – Battle of Jemmingen: The main Spanish army of the Duke of Alva utterly defeats Louis of Nassau's invading army in the Northeastern Netherlands.
- August 18 – The Third War of Religion begins in France after an unsuccessful attempt by the Royalists to capture Condé and Coligny, the Huguenot leaders.
- September 23 – Battle of San Juan de Ulúa (Anglo-Spanish War): In the Gulf of Mexico, a Spanish fleet forces English privateers under John Hawkins to end their campaign.
- September 29 – The Swedish king Eric XIV is deposed by his half-brothers John and Charles. John proclaims himself king John III the next day.
- October 5 – William I of Orange invades the southeastern Netherlands.
- October 20 – Battle of Jodoigne. Spanish forces under the Duke of Alva destroy Orange's rearguard. Orange abandons his offensive.
- The Russo-Turkish War in Astrakhan begins.
- Ashikaga Yoshiaki is installed as Shogun, beginning the Azuchi–Momoyama period in Japan.
- Akbar the Great of the Mughal Empire besieges and captures the massive Chittorgarh Fort in northern India.
- Polybius' "The Histories" first translated into English by Christopher Watson.
- Huguenots besieged Chartres.
- A Spanish expedition under Álvaro de Mendaña de Neira discovers the Solomon Islands
- January 6 – Henri Spondanus, French historian (d. 1643)
- January 14 – Johannes Hartmann, German chemist (d. 1631)
- January 20 – Daniel Cramer, German theologian (d. 1637)
- January 28 – Gustav of Sweden, Swedish prince (d. 1607)
- January 30 – Katharina of Hanau-Lichtenberg, Countess (d. 1636)
- February 2 – Péter Révay, Hungarian historian (d. 1622)
- February 11 – Honoré d'Urfé, French writer (d. 1625)
- March 9 – Aloysius Gonzaga, Italian Jesuit and saint (d. 1591)
- March 16 – Juan Martínez Montañés, Spanish sculptor (d. 1649)
- March 28 – Johannes Polyander, Dutch theologian (d. 1646)
- April 5 – Pope Urban VIII (d. 1644)
- April 17 – George Brooke, English aristocrat (d. 1603)
- April 21 – Frederick II, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp (d. 1587)
- April 28 – Teodósio II, Duke of Braganza, Portuguese nobleman and father of João IV of Portugal (d. 1630)
- May 9 – Guglielmo Caccia, Italian painter (d. 1625)
- May 11 – Christian I, Prince of Anhalt-Bernburg, German prince of the House of Ascania (d. 1630)
- May 17 – Anna Vasa of Sweden, Swedish princess (d. 1625)
- May 29 – Virginia de' Medici (d. 1615)
- June 6 – Sophie of Brandenburg, Regent of Saxony (1591–1601) (d. 1622)
- June 25 – Gunilla Bielke, Queen of Sweden (d. 1597)
- July 1 – Philip Sigismund of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Roman Catholic bishop (d. 1623)
- August 27 – Hercule, Duke of Montbazon (d. 1654)
- September 3 – Adriano Banchieri, Italian composer (d. 1634)
- September 5 – Tommaso Campanella, Italian theologian and poet (d. 1639)
- October 2 – Marino Ghetaldi, Croatian mathematician and physicist (d. 1626)
- October 18 – Henry Wallop, English politician (d. 1642)
- November 18 – Augustus the Elder, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Lutheran Bishop of Ratzeburg (d. 1636)
- December 17 – Jonathan Trelawny, English politician (d. 1604)
- date unknown
- Nikolaus Ager, French botanist (d. 1634)
- John Welsh of Ayr, Scottish Presbyterian leader
- Barnabe Barnes, English poet (d. 1609)
- Edward Chichester, 1st Viscount Chichester (d. 1648)
- Nakagawa Hidemasa, Japanese military leader (d. 1592)
- Fernando de Alva Cortés Ixtlilxóchitl, Mexican historian (d. 1648)
- Gervase Markham, English poet and writer (d. 1637)
- Edward Somerset, 4th Earl of Worcester (d. 1628)
- Henry Wotton, English author and diplomat (d. 1639)
- Wei Zhongxian, Grand Secretary of China (d. 1627)
- January 15 – Catherine Carey, Chief Lady of the Bedchamber to Elizabeth I of England (b. c. 1526)
- January 20 – Myles Coverdale, English Bible translator (b. c. 1488)
- January 21 – Amato Lusitano, Portuguese physician (b. 1511)
- January 26 – Lady Catherine Grey, Countess of Hertford (b. 1539)
- February 15 – Hendrick van Brederode, Dutch reformer (b. 1531)
- March 20 – Albert, Duke of Prussia (b. 1490)
- May 23 – Jean de Ligne, Duke of Arenberg (b. 1528)
- June 3 – Andrés de Urdaneta, Spanish friar (b. 1498)
- June 5
- July 7 – William Turner, British ornithologist and botanist (b. 1508)
- July 24 – Carlos, Prince of Asturias, son of Philip II of Spain (b. 1545)
- August 21 – Jean Parisot de Valette, 49th Grandmaster of the Knights Hospitaller (b. 1495)
- August 23 – Thomas Wharton, 1st Baron Wharton (b. 1495)
- September 22 – Jöran Persson, Swedish politician (b. c. 1530) (executed)
- October 3 – Elisabeth of Valois, Queen of Philip II of Spain (b. 1545)
- October 14 – Jacques Arcadelt, Flemish composer (b. 1504)
- October 28 – Ashikaga Yoshihide, Japanese shogun (b. 1538)
- November 6 – Herman of Kazan and Svyazhsk, archbishop of Kazan and later Metropolitan of Moscow
- December 23 – Roger Ascham, tutor of Elizabeth I of England (b. 1515)
- December 31 – Shimazu Tadayoshi, Japanese warlord (b. 1493)
- date unknown
- Polybius: "The Rise Of The Roman Empire", Page 36, Penguin, 1979.