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|Centuries:||15th century – 16th century – 17th century|
|Decades:||1550s 1560s 1570s – 1580s – 1590s 1600s 1610s|
|Years:||1580 1581 1582 1583 1584 1585 1586 1587 1588 1589|
|Categories:||Births – Deaths – Architecture
Establishments – Disestablishments
This is a list of events occurring in the 1580s, ordered by year.
- January 31 – Henry, King of Portugal dies with no direct heirs, precipitating a Succession crisis.
- March 1 – Michel de Montaigne signs the preface to his most significant work, Essays. They are published later the same year.
- March 25 – Iberian Union: King Philip II of Spain becomes King of Portugal under the name Philip I, following the death without heirs of King Henry of Portugal, in a personal union of the crowns, thus maintaining Portuguese independence (in Europe and throughout the Portuguese Empire). The Philippine Dynasty rule lasts until 1640.
- April 6 – Dover Straits earthquake.
- June – England signs a commercial treaty with the Ottoman Empire.
- June 11 – Juan de Garay founds Buenos Aires.
- June 25 – The Book of Concord, a collection of Lutheran confessional documents, is published.
- July 12 – The Ostrog Bible, the first complete printed Bible translation into a Slavic language (Old Church Slavonic), is first printed at Ostroh in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (modern-day Ukraine) by Ivan Fyodorov.
- August 25 – Battle of Alcântara: Spanish armies, led by Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, defending the claim of King Philip II of Spain to the Portuguese throne, defeat the armies of Portuguese claimant António, Prior of Crato.
- September 26 – Francis Drake returns to Plymouth in England from his voyage of circumnavigation (westabout) on the Golden Hind, the second completed in a continuous voyage and the first under its original commander.
- The Billy Mitchell volcano on the island of Bougainville undergoes a catastrophic eruption (VEI 6).
- The first session of the Jewish Vaad (Council of Four Lands) is held in Lublin, Poland; 70 delegates of Jewish local qahals meet to discuss taxation and other issues important to Jewish communities.
- Old City of Zamość established in Poland by Jan Zamoyski.
- Jesuit missionaries arrive at the court of Akbar, Ruler of the Mughal Empire.
- March – The Parliament of England's Act against Reconciliation to Rome imposes heavy fines for practising Roman Catholicism.
- March 25 – Iberian Union: Philip II of Spain crowned Philip I of Portugal.
- April 4 – Following his circumnavigation of the world, Francis Drake is knighted by Elizabeth I of England.
- July 26
- The Northern Netherlands (Union of Utrecht) proclaim their independence from Spain in the Act of Abjuration. They abjure loyalty to Philip II of Spain as their sovereign, and appoint Francois, Duke of Anjou, as the new sovereign of the Netherlands. Public practise of Roman Catholicism is forbidden.
- A meteorite makes landfall in Thuringia, Holy Roman Empire.
- August 28 – The army of king Stefan Batory of Poland begins its siege of the Russian garrison of Pskov
- Summer (probable) – Yermak begins the Russian conquest of the Khanate of Sibir with a band of 1,636 men.
- September – A mercenary army of Sweden under Pontus De la Gardie captures Narva from Russia.
- November 4 – Jean de la Cassière is restored as Grandmaster of the Knights Hospitaller by Pope Gregory XIII.
- December 1 – Execution in England of the Jesuit priest Edmund Campion for treason.
- The Knights Hospitaller depose Jean de la Cassière as Grandmaster and appoint Mathurin Romegas.
- The Ming Dynasty Chancellor of China, Chief Grand Secretary Zhang Juzheng, imposes the Single Whip Reform, by which taxes are assessed on properties recorded in the land census and paid in silver as the accepted medium of exchange.
- Oda Nobunaga invades the Iga Province.
- John Dee practices angel magic with Barnabas Saul but with no success.
- Guru Arjan Dev becomes the fifth Guru of Sikhs succeeding his father Guru Ram Das.
- January 15 – Russia cedes Livonia and Southern-Estonia to Poland.
- February 10 – François, Duke of Anjou, arrives in the Netherlands, where he is personally welcomed by William the Silent.
- February 24 – Pope Gregory XIII implements the Gregorian Calendar.
- March 9 – Edward Kelley arrives at John Dee's house.
- April 16 – Spanish conquistador Hernando de Lerma founds the settlement of Salta, Argentina.
- May–August – Robert Browne and his Brownist congregationalist companions are obliged to leave England and go to Middelburg in the Netherlands.
- June 21 – The Incident at Honnō-ji occurs in Kyoto, Japan.
- July 26 – Battle of Ponta Delgada (War of the Portuguese Succession): Spanish admiral Santa Cruz decisively defeats a larger mercenary fleet from France, England, supporters of the Portuguese claimant António, Prior of Crato, and the Dutch Republic, under Filippo di Piero Strozzi (who is killed) off the Azores, the first engagement between large fleets of galleons operating at any great distance from the mainland.
- August 22 – The Raid of Ruthven in Scotland: a political conspiracy of Presbyterian nobles abduct King James VI.
- October 4 of Julian calendar (Thursday) – Italy, Poland and Iberian Peninsula make the next day Friday, October 15 of the Gregorian Calendar, skipping over 10 days. Other countries follow at various later dates.
- October 4 – Saint Teresa of Ávila dies. She is buried the next day, October 15.
- November 29 – Marriage of future English playwright William Shakespeare and Anne Hathaway.
- December 9 of Julian calendar (Sunday) – France makes the next day Monday, December 20 of the Gregorian Calendar.
- Kumbum is founded in Tibet.
- In Ming Dynasty China
- The sultanate of Morocco begins to press southward in search of a greater share of the trans-Saharan trade.
- Toyotomi Hideyoshi attacks a fortress at Takamatsu.
- The Douai-Rheims Bible New Testament is published.
- "On Embassies" published by Flavius Ursinus.
- John Dee practices angel magic with scryer Edward Kelley, including the Angelic Alphabet.
- January 18 – François, Duke of Anjou, attacks Antwerp.
- February 4 – Gebhard Truchsess von Waldburg, newly converted to Calvinism, formally marries Agnes von Mansfeld-Eisleben, a former canoness of Gerresheim, while retaining his position as Archbishop-Elector of Cologne.
- March 10 – The Queen Elizabeth's Men troupe of actors is ordered to be founded in England.
- May – Battle of Shizugatake in Japan: Shibata Katsuie is defeated by Toyotomi Hideyoshi, who goes on to commence construction of Osaka Castle.
- May 22 – Ernest of Bavaria is elected as Roman Catholic Archbishop of Cologne in opposition to Gebhard Truchsess von Waldburg. The opposition rapidly turns into armed struggle, the Cologne War within the Electorate of Cologne, beginning with the Destruction of the Oberstift.
- July 25 – Cuncolim Revolt: the first documented battle of India's independence against a European colonial ruler is fought by the Desais of Cuncolim in Goa, against the Portuguese.
- August 5 – Sir Humphrey Gilbert, on the site of the modern-day city of St John's, Newfoundland, claims the island of Newfoundland on behalf of England, marking the beginning of the British Empire.
- August 19 – Petru Cercel enters Bucharest, and becomes Prince of Wallachia.
- December 17 – Cologne War: The Siege of Godesberg (begun on November 18) concludes when Catholic forces under Prince-elector-archbishop Ernest of Bavaria capture the strategic position from defenders of the Calvinist convert Gebhard Truchsess von Waldburg.
- King James VI of Scotland signs a charter creating the Tounis College (the modern-day University of Edinburgh). For some unknown reason, the charter is dated a year earlier, as 1582.
- The world's oldest, intact, still-surviving amusement park, Dyrehavsbakken, is founded north of Copenhagen.
- The Bunch Of Grapes pub is built on Narrow Street, London. Referred to by Charles Dickens in Our Mutual Friend as "The Six Jolly Fellowship Porters", it still stands in the 21st century, much rebuilt and renamed The Grapes.
- January–March – Archangelsk is founded as New Kholmogory in northern Russia by Ivan the Terrible.
- January 11 – Sir Walter Mildmay is given a royal licence to found Emmanuel College, Cambridge.
- March 18 (N.S. March 28) – Death of Ivan the Terrible, ruler of Russia since 1533. He is succeeded as Tsar by his son Feodor.
- May 17 – The conflict between Toyotomi Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu culminates in the Battle of Nagakute.
- June 1 – With the death of the Duc d'Anjou, the Huguenot Henry of Navarre becomes heir-presumptive to the throne of France.
- June 4 – Walter Ralegh sends Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlowe to explore the Outer Banks of Virginia (now North Carolina), with a view to establishing an English colony; they locate Roanoke Island.
- June 11 – Walk (modern-day Valka and Valga, towns in Latvia and Estonia respectively) receives city rights from Polish king Stefan Bathory.
- July 5 – The Maronite College is established in Rome.
- July 10 – William I of Orange is assassinated.
- September 17 – Ghent falls into the hands of Alexander Farnese, governor of the Spanish Netherlands.
- December – The Treaty of Joinville is signed secretly between the French Catholic League and Spain.
- Ratu Hijau becomes queen regnant of the once Malay Pattani Kingdom.
- The Belgian cartographer and geographer Abraham Ortelius features Ming Dynasty-era Chinese carriages with masts and sails in his atlas Theatrum Orbis Terrarum; concurrent and later Western writers also take note of this peculiar Chinese invention.
- This year, according to Italian heretic Jacopo Brocardo, is regarded as an apocalyptic inauguration of a major new cycle.
- January 12 – The Netherlands adopts the Gregorian calendar.
- February – The Spanish seize Brussels.
- April 24 – Pope Sixtus V succeeds Pope Gregory XIII as the 227th pope.
- May 19 – Spain seizes English ships in Spanish ports, precipitating the Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604).
- July 7 – The Treaty of Nemours forces King Henry III of France to capitulate to the demands of the Catholic League, triggering the Eighth War of Religion (also known as the War of the Three Henrys) to begin in France.
- August 8 – English explorer John Davis enters Cumberland Sound in Baffin Island in his quest for the Northwest Passage.
- August 14 – Queen Elizabeth I of England agrees to establish a protectorate over the Netherlands.
- August 17
- Antwerp is captured by Spanish forces under the Prince of Parma, who orders Protestants to leave the city. As a result, over half of the 100,000 inhabitants flee to the northern provinces. Furthermore, upon hearing of the capture of Antwerp, a relief fleet sent to raise the siege instead blockades the Schelde river, preventing any and all ships from reaching Antwerp for two centuries. This effectively destroys Antwerp's position as an important trade city and de facto capital of the Dutch provinces. Its position is taken over by various northern cities, most prominently Amsterdam.
- A first group of colonists sent by Sir Walter Raleigh under the charge of Ralph Lane lands in the New World to create Roanoke Colony on Roanoke Island, off the coast of North Carolina. This group will depart the following June.
- August 20 – The Treaty of Nonsuch is signed, committing England to support the Dutch Revolt, thus entering the Eighty Years' War.
- June 16 – Mary, Queen of Scots, recognizes Philip II of Spain as her heir.
- July 6 – The Treaty of Berwick is signed between Queen Elizabeth I of England and King James VI of Scotland.
- September 20–21 – Execution of the Babington Plotters: The 14 men convicted of the Babington Plot, which intended to murder Queen Elizabeth and replace her with Mary Stuart, were executed over two days in St Giles Field, London. They were all hung, drawn and quartered. The executions of the first seven traitors on 20 September was carried out in a particularly cruel way.
- September 22 – Battle of Zutphen: Spanish troops defeat the Dutch rebels and their English allies.
- November 19 – Henry Barrowe, English Separatist Puritan, is imprisoned.
- December 17 – The reign of Emperor Ōgimachi of Japan ends and Emperor Go-Yōzei ascends to the throne of Japan.
- Toyotomi Hideyoshi becomes grand minister of Japan.
- William Harrison becomes canon of Windsor.
- Simon Stevin, a Flemish mathematician, demonstrates that two objects of different weight fall with the same speed.
- St. Augustine, Florida, and Santo Domingo in the modern day Dominican Republic are plundered and burned by English sea captain Sir Francis Drake.
- Jacobus Gallus composes his motet O magnum mysterium.
- The first English ship Vanguard is launched in England.
- English explorer Thomas Cavendish begins his circumnavigation of the globe.
- The cities of Voronezh, Samara, and Tyumen in Russia are founded.
- February 1 – Queen Elizabeth I of England signs the death warrant of her cousin Mary, Queen of Scots, after Mary is implicated in a plot to murder Elizabeth. Seven days later, on the orders of Elizabeth's privy council, Mary is beheaded at Fotheringhay Castle.
- April 29 – "Singeing the King of Spain's Beard": On an expedition against Spain, English privateer Sir Francis Drake leads a raid in the Bay of Cádiz, sinking at least 23 ships of the Spanish fleet.
- July 22 – Roanoke Colony: A group of English settlers arrive on Roanoke Island off of North Carolina to re-establish the deserted colony.
- August 18 – According to legend, Saul Wahl is named king of Poland.
- August 19
- August 27 – Governor John White leaves the Roanoke Colony to get more supplies from England.
- October 1 – Shāh ‘Abbās I "The Great" succeeds as Shahanshah of Iran.
- October 20 – Battle of Coutras: Huguenot forces under Henry of Navarre defeat Royalist forces under Anne de Joyeuse, favorite of King Henry. Joyeuse is killed.
- October 31 – Leiden University Library opens its doors after its founding in 1575.
- Toyotomi Hideyoshi attacks Kyūshū.
- The first Filipinos in North America land in Morro Bay, near San Luis Obispo, California.
- A severe famine breaks out in China during the Ming dynasty.
- The Rose (theatre) is founded in London by Philip Henslowe.
- The chapbook Historia von D. Johann Fausten, printed by Johann Spies in Frankfurt, is the first published version of the Faust story.
- Establishment of St. Dominic's Church, Macau.
- February – The Sinhalese abandon the siege of Colombo, capital of Portuguese Ceylon.
- February 9 – The sudden death of Álvaro de Bazán, 1st Marquis of Santa Cruz, in the midst of preparations for the Spanish Armada, forces King Philip II of Spain to re-allocate the command of the fleet.
- April 4 – Christian IV becomes King of Denmark upon the death of his father Frederick II.
- May 12 – Day of the Barricades in Paris: Henry I, Duke of Guise seizes the city, forcing King Henry III to flee.
- May 28 – The Spanish Armada, with 130 ships and 30,000 men, begins to set sail from the Tagus estuary heading for the English Channel (it will take until May 30 for all of the ships to leave port).
- July – King Henry III of France capitulates to the Duke of Guise and returns to Paris.
- July 31 – The first engagement between the English and Spanish fleets, off Plymouth, results in a victory for the English under command of Lord Howard of Effingham and Sir Francis Drake.
- August 2 – The English fleet defeats the Spanish fleet, off the Isle of Portland.
- August 6 (July 29 Old Style) – Battle of Gravelines: The Spanish Armada is defeated by the English naval force off the coast of Gravelines in the Spanish Netherlands (in modern France).
- August 7 – The English fleet defeats the Spanish fleet off the coast of Flanders.
- August 8–August 9 – The Spanish are unable to reach the coast of Flanders to meet up with the army of the Duke of Parma. The Duke of Medina Sidonia decides to return to Spain.
- August 12 – The fleeing Spanish fleet sails past the Firth of Forth, and the English call off their pursuit. Much of the Spanish fleet is destroyed by storms as it sails for home around Scotland and Ireland.
- October 7 – The first biography of Nicolaus Copernicus (d.1543) is completed by Bernardino Baldi.
- December 5 – The Order of Augustinian Recollects is formally recognised as a separate province from the Order of Saint Augustine, an event later known as the "Día de la Recolección" or "Day of Recollection".
- December 23 – Henry III of France strikes his ultra-Catholic enemies, having the Duke of Guise and his brother, Cardinal Louis of Guise, killed, and holding the Cardinal de Bourbon a prisoner. As a result, large parts of France reject Henry III as their king, forcing him to side with Henry of Navarre
- William Morgan's Welsh translation of the Bible is published.
- The "Armada Portrait" of Elizabeth I of England is created to celebrate the English defeat of the Spanish Armada and to assert the strength of Elizabeth herself.
- War of the Three Henrys: In France, the Catholic League is in rebellion against King Henry III, in revenge for his murder of Henry I, Duke of Guise in December 1588. The King makes peace with his old rival, the Huguenot Henry of Navarre, his designated successor, and together they besiege Paris.
- January 26 – Job is elected as the first Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia.
- February 26 – Valkendorfs Kollegium is founded in Copenhagen, Denmark.
- April 13 – An English Armada led by Sir Francis Drake and Sir John Norreys and largely financed by private investors sets sail to attack the Iberian Peninsula's Atlantic coast but fails to achieve any naval advantage.
- August 1 – King Henry III of France is stabbed by the fanatical Dominican friar Jacques Clément (who is immediately killed).
- August 2 – Henry III of France dies. His army is thrown into confusion and an intended attack to retake Paris is abandoned. Henry of Navarre succeeds to the throne as King Henry IV of France but is not recognized by the Catholic League who acclaim the imprisoned Charles, Cardinal de Bourbon, as the rightful King of France, Charles X.
- August 20 – King James VI of Scotland, the future James I of England, contracts a proxy marriage with the 14-year-old Anne of Denmark at Kronborg. The formal ceremony takes place on November 23 at the Old Bishop's Palace in Oslo.
- September 21 – Battle of Arques: King Henry IV of France's forces defeat those of the Catholic League under Charles of Lorraine, Duke of Mayenne (younger brother of Henry I, Duke of Guise).
- November 1 – Henry IV of France is repulsed in an attempt to capture Paris from the Catholic League.
- December 25 (Christmas Day) – The monks of the Pechenga Monastery, the northernmost in the world, are massacred by Swedes led by a Finnish peasant chief in the course of the Russo-Swedish War.
- San Luigi dei Francesi, Rome, is completed by Domenico Fontana.
- Hiroshima is founded by the Japanese warlord Mōri Terumoto.
- The Hofbräuhaus is founded by William V, Duke of Bavaria in Munich.
- Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 160–162. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2.
- Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. pp. 230–233. ISBN 0-304-35730-8.
- Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN 0-14-102715-0.
- Roberts, J. (1994). History of the World. Penguin.
- Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 160–162. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2.
- "Catalogue of aërolites and Bolides, from A.D. 2 to A.D. 1860". Meteoritehistory.info. Retrieved 26 March 2012.
- Moody, Michael E. (2004). "Browne, Robert (1550?–1633)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/3695. Retrieved 2011-10-10. (subscription or UK public library membership required)
- Walton, Timothy (2002). The Spanish Treasure Fleets. Sarasota, FL: Pineapple Press. p. 80. ISBN 1-56164-049-2.
- Polybius (1979). The Rise Of The Roman Empire. Penguin. p. 36.
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- "The London Charles Dickens Knew", walksoflondon.co.uk.
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