|Centuries:||15th century – 16th century – 17th century|
|Decades:||1560s 1570s 1580s – 1590s – 1600s 1610s 1620s|
|Years:||1588 1589 1590 – 1591 – 1592 1593 1594|
|1591 by topic|
|Arts and science|
|Lists of leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Ab urbe condita||2344|
|English Regnal year||33 Eliz. 1 – 34 Eliz. 1|
|Chinese calendar||庚寅年 (Metal Tiger)
4287 or 4227
— to —
辛卯年 (Metal Rabbit)
4288 or 4228
|- Vikram Samvat||1647–1648|
|- Shaka Samvat||1513–1514|
|- Kali Yuga||4692–4693|
|Japanese calendar||Tenshō 19
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 10 days|
|Minguo calendar||321 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2133–2134|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1591.|
1591 (MDXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (dominical letter F) of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Friday (dominical letter C) of the Julian calendar, the 1591st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 591st year of the 2nd millennium, the 91st year of the 16th century, and the 2nd year of the 1590s decade. Note that the Julian day for 1591 is 10 calendar days difference, which continued to be used from 1582 until the complete conversion of the Gregorian calendar was entirely done in 1929.
- March 13 – Battle of Tondibi: In Mali, forces sent by the Saadi Dynasty ruler of Morocco, Ahmad al-Mansur, and led by Judar Pasha, defeat the Songhai Empire, despite being outnumbered by at least five to one.
- April 10 – English merchant James Lancaster sets off on a voyage to the East Indies.
- April 21 – Japanese tea-master Sen no Rikyū commits seppuku on the order of Toyotomi Hideyoshi.
- May 15 – In Russia, Tsarevich Dimitri, son of the Ivan the Terrible, is found dead in mysterious circumstances, at the palace in Uglich. The official explanation is that he has cut his own throat during an epileptic seizure. Many believe he has been murdered by his rival, Boris Godunov, who becomes tsar.
- May 24 – Sir John Norreys, with an expeditionary force sent by Queen Elizabeth I of England, takes the town of Guingamp after a brief siege, on behalf of Henry of Navarre.
- May 30 – Timbuktu is captured by an expedition of Arma people sent by the Saadi ruler of Morocco and led by Judar Pasha.
- June – Zutphen is captured by the Dutch under Maurice of Nassau.
- July – Deventer is captured by the Dutch under Maurice of Nassau.
- July 22 – The Durtnell (Dartnell) family of Brasted, Kent, England, begin to work as building contractors. They will still be functioning under the twelfth generation of the family in the 21st century.
- August – Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex leads an English army in support of the Protestant Henry IV of France at the Siege of Rouen.
- September 1 – HMS Revenge is captured by the Spanish following battle near the Azores.
- September 14 – Hulst is captured by Maurice.
- October 21 – Nijmegen is captured by Maurice.
- October 29 – Pope Innocent IX succeeds Pope Gregory XIV as the 230th pope.
- The city of Hyderabad, India is founded by Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah.
- The Rialto Bridge in Venice, designed by Antonio da Ponte, is completed.
- Publication of the first of the Conimbricenses commentaries on Aristotle by the Jesuits of the University of Coimbra.
- January 11 – Robert Devereux, 3rd Earl of Essex, English Civil War general (d. 1646)
- January 12 – Giuseppe Ribera, Spanish painter (d. 1652)
- February 8 – Giovanni Francesco Barbieri (Guercino), Italian painter (d. 1666)
- February 21 (or March 2) Girard Desargues, French mathematician (d. 1661)
- February 25 – Friedrich von Spee, German Jesuit and poet (d. 1635)
- March 15 – Alexandre de Rhodes, French Jesuit missionary (d. 1660)
- June 16 – Joseph Solomon Delmedigo, Italian physician, mathematician, and music theorist (d. 1655)
- July 20 – Anne Hutchinson, English Puritan preacher (d. 1643)
- August 24 – Robert Herrick, English poet (d. 1674)
- date unknown
- April 21 – Sen no Rikyu, Japanese exponent of the tea ceremony (b. 1522)
- May 1 – Elizabeth Cecil, 16th Baroness de Ros, English Noblewoman (b. c. 1574)
- May 15 – Tsarevich Dimitri, Tsarevich (b. 1582)
- June 21 – Aloysius Gonzaga, Italian Jesuit and saint (b. 1568)
- July 2 – Vincenzo Galilei, Italian composer (b. 1520)
- July 18 – Jacobus Gallus Carniolus, Slovenian composer (b. 1550)
- August 23 – Luis Ponce de León, Spanish lyric poet (b. 1527)
- August 27 – Katheryn of Berain, Welsh noblewoman (b. 1534)
- September 10 – Richard Grenville, English soldier and explorer (b. 1542)
- October 16 – Pope Gregory XIV (b. 1535)
- November 20 – Christopher Hatton, English politician (b. 1540)
- December 14 – Saint John of the Cross, Spanish Carmelite friar and poet (b. 1542)
- December 18 – Marigje Arriens, Dutch woman executed for witchcraft (b. c. 1520)
- December 30 – Pope Innocent IX (b. 1519)
- date unknown