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|Centuries:||15th century – 16th century – 17th century|
|Decades:||1560s 1570s 1580s – 1590s – 1600s 1610s 1620s|
|Years:||1591 1592 1593 – 1594 – 1595 1596 1597|
|1594 by topic|
|Arts and science|
|Lists of leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Ab urbe condita||2347|
|English Regnal year||36 Eliz. 1 – 37 Eliz. 1|
|Chinese calendar||癸巳年 (Water Snake)
4290 or 4230
— to —
甲午年 (Wood Horse)
4291 or 4231
|- Vikram Samvat||1650–1651|
|- Shaka Samvat||1515–1516|
|- Kali Yuga||4694–4695|
|Japanese calendar||Bunroku 3
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 10 days|
|Minguo calendar||318 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2136–2137|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1594.|
1594 (MDXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (dominical letter B) of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday (dominical letter F) of the Julian calendar, the 1594th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 594th year of the 2nd millennium, the 94th year of the 16th century, and the 5th year of the 1590s decade. As of the start of 1594, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1918.
- February 27 – Henry IV is crowned King of France at Chartres.
- March 21 – Henry IV enters his capital of Paris for the first time.
- April 16 – Ferdinando Stanley, 5th Earl of Derby is found poisoned. At the time of his death, he was, after his mother, second in line to the throne of England.
- April 17 – Hyacinth of Poland is canonized.
- June 5 – First voyage of Willem Barents in the Arctic Ocean in search of the Northeast Passage.
- June 11 – Philip II of Spain recognizes the rights and privileges of the local nobles and chieftains in the Philippines, which paves the way for the stabilization of the rule of the Principalía.
- June 24–July 1 – Action of San Mateo Bay: English privateer Richard Hawkins in the Dainty is attacked and captured by a Spanish squadron off Esmeraldas, Ecuador.
- July 3 – The Ayutthayan–Cambodian War (1591–1594) concludes when Naresuan, ruler of the Ayutthaya Kingdom, sacks Longvek, capital of Cambodia.
- July 22 – After a 2-month siege, the city of Groningen submits to Dutch troops, bringing the whole northern Netherlands under the Dutch Republic.
- October 9 – The Campaign of Danture, which began on July 5 as part of the Sinhalese–Portuguese War, concludes with a decisive victory by forces of the Kingdom of Kandy over the Portuguese Empire, reversing near-total control of Sri Lanka by Portugal.
- St. Paul's College, Macau is founded in Macau by Jesuits, being the first western style university in the far east.
- In Amsterdam, the Compagnie van Verre is created, with the goal of breaking the Portuguese monopoly on spice trade.
- Tulip bulbs planted by Carolus Clusius in the Hortus Botanicus Leiden, Holland, first flower.
- January 1 – Barthélemy Vimont, French missionary (d. 1667)
- January 7 – Vincenzo II Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua, Italian Duke and Catholic cardinal (d. 1627)
- January 12 – Gregers Krabbe, Danish noble (d. 1655)
- January 16 – Maeda Toshitsune, Japanese warlord (d. 1658)
- January 24 – Pierre de Marca, French bishop and historian (d. 1662)
- February 2 – Philip Powell, Welsh martyr (d. 1646)
- February 5 – Biagio Marini, Italian violinist and composer (d. 1663)
- February 16 – Juliana Morell, Spanish nun (d. 1653)
- February 18 – Philippe de Carteret II, Seigneur of Sark (d. 1643)
- February 19 – Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales, elder son of King James I & VI and Anne of Denmark (d. 1612)
- February 21 – John Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Weimar, German duke (d. 1626)
- February 26 – William Wadsworth, American colonial (d. 1675)
- March 25 – Maria Tesselschade Visscher, Dutch poet and engraver (d. 1649)
- April 21 – Bernardino Spada (d. 1661)
- April 29 – Samuel Fairclough, English minister (d. 1677)
- May 1 – John Haynes, governor (d. 1653)
- May 9 – Louis Henry, Prince of Nassau-Dillenburg, Military leader in the Thirty Years' War (d. 1662)
- May 15 – Sophie of Solms-Laubach, wife of Joachim Ernst, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach (d. 1651)
- May 29 – Gottfried Heinrich Graf zu Pappenheim, field marshal of the Holy Roman Empire in the Thirty Years' War (d. 1632)
- June 3 – César, Duke of Vendôme, French nobleman (d. 1665)
- June 11 – Thomas Cromwell, 1st Earl of Ardglass, English nobleman (d. 1653)
- June 15 – Nicolas Poussin, French painter (d. 1665)
- June 16 – Stefano Durazzo, Italian cardinal (d. 1667)
- June 23 – Thomas Tyrrell, English judge and politician (d. 1672)
- July 6 – Frederick V, Margrave of Baden-Durlach (1622–1659) (d. 1659)
- July 10 – Bartolomeo Gennari, Italian painter (d. 1661)
- July 14 – Beat Albrecht von Ramstein, Roman Catholic bishop (d. 1651)
- August 4 – Aleksander Ludwik Radziwiłł, Polish noble (d. 1654)
- August 16 – Queen Inyeol, Korean royal consort (d. 1636)
- September 13 – Francesco Manelli, Italian composer (d. 1667)
- September 30 – Antoine Girard de Saint-Amant, French poet (d. 1661)
- October 4 – Johan Schatter, Dutch Golden Age member of the schutterij in Haarlem (d. 1673)
- October 27 – Johann Rudolf Wettstein, Swiss diplomat (d. 1666)
- November 15 – Jean Puget de la Serre, French author and dramatist (d. 1665)
- November 24 – Henry Grey, 10th Earl of Kent (d. 1651)
- November 26 – James Ware, Irish genealogist (d. 1666)
- November 30 – John Cosin, English churchman (d. 1672)
- December 7 – Frederik Coning, Dutch Golden Age member of the Haarlem schutterij (d. 1636)
- December 8 – Pierre Petit, French astronomer, military engineer, and physicist (d. 1677)
- December 9 – King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, Swedish king and general (d. 1632)
- December 21 – Robert Sutton, 1st Baron Lexinton, English politician (d. 1668)
- December 24 – Otto, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel, Prince of Hesse-Kassel, Administrator of Hersfeld Abbey (d. 1617)
- December 27 – Ove Gjedde, Danish admiral, member of the interim government after the death of Christian IV (d. 1660)
- date unknown
- probable – Tarquinio Merula, Italian composer (d. 1665)
- February 2 – Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina, Italian composer (b. 1525)
- April 16 – Ferdinando Stanley, 5th Earl of Derby (b. 1559)
- April 29 – Thomas Cooper, English bishop, lexicographer, and writer (b. c. 1517)
- May 31 – Tintoretto, Italian painter (b. 1518)
- June 3 – John Aylmer, English divine (b. 1521)
- June 7 – Rodrigo Lopez, Queen Elizabeth's physician (executed for treason) (b. 1525)
- June 14 – Orlande de Lassus, Flemish composer (b. 1532)
- June 29 – Niels Kaas, Danish chancellor (b. 1535)
- July – Girolamo Mei, Italian historian and humanist (b. 1519)
- July 10 – Paolo Bellasio, Italian composer and organist (b. 1554)
- July 16 – Thomas Kyd, author of The Spanish Tragedy (b. 1558)
- October 8 – Ishikawa Goemon, ninja and thief of Japan (b. 1558)
- October 16 – William Allen, English cardinal (b. 1532)
- November 22 – Sir Martin Frobisher, British explorer (b. 1535)
- November 29 – Alonso de Ercilla y Zúñiga, Basque nobleman (b. 1533)
- December 2 – Gerardus Mercator, Flemish-German cartographer (b. 1512)
- date unknown – John Johnson, English lutenist and composer (b. c. 1545)