List of Atlantic hurricanes in the 17th century

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The List of Atlantic hurricanes in the 17th century encompasses all known and suspected Atlantic tropical cyclones from 1600 to 1699. Although records of every storm that occurred do not survive, the information presented here originated in sufficiently populated coastal communities and ships at sea that survived the tempests.

1600–1624[edit]

Year Area(s) affected Date
(GC)
Deaths Damage/Notes
1600 Offshore Mexico 12 September > 60, probably 400 Captain general Pedro de Escobar y Melgarejo commanded Spanish treasure fleet (Flota de Nueva España in Spanish), a convoy of 60 ships that sailed from Cadiz on 15 May. About 20 leagues from Villa Rica de la Vera Cruz, a hurricane struck the fleet. The 300-ton carrack (nao in Spanish) San Antonio de Padua under captaincy of Juan de Morales, the 280-ton carrack Santa Catalina de la Sierra under captaincy of Andrés Ximénez, and a 700-ton mercury-carrying carrack under captaincy of Mateo Letieta sank shortly after the onset of the storm. A 350-ton vessel under captaincy of Rafael Ferrifino disappeared, and another ship vanished from the fleet; both presumably sunk. The storm also wrecked a small patache under a captain Ganucho on the coast of Tabasco; sixty of her men drowned. The surviving ships of the Spanish treasure fleet regrouped into a convoy and continued toward Vera Cruz.[1]
1600 Cuba, offshore Mexico 26/27 September > 103, probably 600 A weak hurricane moved northeastward through the western Caribbean Sea, dispersing a fleet somewhere north of Havana.[2]

The remnant Spanish treasure fleet sighted Vera Cruz, on 26 September, but a "norther" compelled the fleet to anchor offshore overnight. Some ships anchored in the lee of Isla de Sacrificios, and the storm compelled many to cast their cannon, anchors, and part of their cargoes overboard to prevent capsizing. The carrack (nao in Spanish) under captaincy of Juan Minquez cast 500 ceramic jugs of wine and 160 jugs of olive oil overboard. Before the "norther" diminished, the fleet lost eight more ships:

  • The 300-ton frigate La Caridad under captaincy of Francisco Morales and ownership of Augustín de Paz wrecked near Isla Verde with thirty men drowned.
  • The 100-ton carrack (nao in Spanish) Santa María del Juncal wrecked near Isla de Gavias, but later divers recovered part of her cargo.
  • the 300-ton nao San Pedro under captaincy of Diego de Bodes, was wrecked on the coast near the Medellín River, and some of her cargo washed ashore.
  • the 100-ton nao La Catalina under captaincy of Duarte de Quirós, wrecked on the coast about 5 leagues from Coatzacoalcos, but her men survived, and salvage recovered only forty or fifty new muskets.
  • The 170-ton Scottish-built fluyt (filibote in Spanish) Nuestra Señora del Rosario under captaincy of Herman Garcia, wrecked on the coast at Las Aguas Locas, and people recovered many pipes of wine that washed ashore.
  • The 135-ton English-built frigate San Benito under captaincy of Lazaro de Arpide struck the coast near Alvarado River, and people salvaged some pipes of wine.
  • The 125-ton French-built ship San Buenaventura under captaincy of Juan Francisco Grimaldi sank near the Tuscla River off the Sierras de San Miguel (perhaps Sierra de los Tuxtlas), and sixty persons drowned, but people recovered some pipes of wine that washed ashore.
  • The 400-ton nao La Esperanza under captaincy of Tomás Gallardo, struck on the coast near Mimcapa, 13 men drowned, and she lost all 110 boxes of mercury.

Some accounts combine the effects of the two storms, which together killed about one thousand persons and let to the loss or jettisoning of cargo worth more than 10 million pesos. Some French and English accounts date these storms to 1601, perhaps because of the slow pace of news.[3] Tropical cyclone status in doubt.

1601 Veracruz, Mexico unknown 1000 [4] Tropical cyclone status in doubt. Quite possibly a duplicate of one or two storms in 1600.
1603 Martinique 1/2 August unknown Three ships lost somewhere near Martinique.[5]
1605 Nicaragua unknown 1300 [4] Details from probably the same storm follow.

Captain general Luis de Córdova commanded seven treasure-laden galleons of the Armada de Tierra Firma from Cartagena, Colombia. Between Serrana Bank and Serranilla Bank, a hurricane struck the fleet. One ship returned to Cartagena; two others reached Jamaica. The hurricane wrecked the other four galleons on Serranilla Bank:

  • the 600-ton galleon capitana San Roque under captaincy of Ruy López,
  • the 747-ton galleon admiral Santo Domingo under captaincy of Diego Ramírez,
  • the 500-ton Nuestra Señora de Begoña under captaincy of Pedro Muñoz de Salto, and
  • the 450-ton San Ambrosio under captaincy of Martín de Ora Macha

No one survived these four wrecks, and Spanish marine salvage teams traversed the western Caribbean Sea but failed to locate them and recover their lost 8 million pesos. Spanish fishermen from Cuba in 1667 accidentally located at least two of the shipwrecks and recovered some silver coins. Spanish marine salvage expeditions over the next six years failed because of bad weather. Robert F. Marx attempted to salvage the wrecks in 1963 but failed on account of bad weather and rough seas.[6]

1605 Dominican Republic, Haiti, Cuba 29 September unknown Landfall near Sabana Port, Cuba, perhaps Sabana-Camagüey Archipelago.[7]
1605 Dominican Republic, Haiti, Cuba unknown unknown "Loss of three ships" but "some men escaped."[4] Perhaps the same as the previous storm.
1605 Cumaná in Venezuela unknown unknown "Four galleons" lost near Santa Margarita (perhaps Isla Margarita).[4]

London Times reports the loss of 28 of 42 slaves with additional loss of some crew aboard the Bristol. Lloyd's List indicates that someone saved only 10 men and noted the loss of "three vessels, from Africa with slaves" in the West Indies from the hurricane; statistics of the era often ignored slaves. [This is in error: Both the London Times and Lloyd's List did not exist at this time so these comments should be removed.]

1608 Mexico 3 September Made landfall near Veracruz[7]
1609 near Bahamas (and Bermuda) 4 August [O.S. 25 July] unknown The Third Supply fleet under Admiral Sir George Somers sailed from England to Jamestown, Virginia, for London Company to deliver Sir Thomas Gates (governor), numerous supplies, and hundreds of new colonists. A "most terrible and vehement storm," a severe West Indian hurricane, struck the fleet about 150 leagues (450 nautical miles (830 km; 520 mi)) from the West Indies and the Bahamas. The 44-hour gale scattered the fleet and sent one vessel immediately to the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean. Four vessels regrouped and arrived quickly in Virginia together; three others followed soon thereafter. The flagship Sea Venture under captaincy of Christopher Newport intentionally ran aground in Bermuda with water in her hold (ship) already 9 feet (2.7 m) deep. All 150 men aboard her survived the storm and landed; from the remains of the Sea Venture and Juniperus bermudiana wood, the castaways then built two new full-rigged pinnaces, Deliverance and Patience. A few passengers died during the 10-month ordeal on Bermuda, and two more stayed on the island to secure the British claim; the remainder, including John Rolfe, boarded the new pinnaces and successfully sailed for Virginia; they arrived in May 1610. Passenger William Strachey tells the story in True Reportory, which likely inspired William Shakespeare to write The Tempest.[8] This event may continue another storm this season.
1609 southeastern Bahamas unknown 32 [9] This event may continue another storm this season.
1614 Mexico 31 August unknown Captain-general Juan de la Cueva y Mendoza commanded the Spanish treasure fleet (Flota de Nueva España) of 41 ships that left Cadiz on 7 July. Seven merchant carracks (naos in Spanish) of this fleet wrecked during the night between Cabo Catoche and Isla Mujeres. These naos carried merchandise worth 1.5 million pesos and 876 quintales (4,033 metric tons (3,969 long tons)??) of mercury. During the storm, this vessel split into two parts and sank so quickly that no one saved anything, "not even the crew or passengers." The fleet reached Vera Cruz on 4 September, where another vessel ran aground on the shoals.[10][11]
1615 offshore Mexico 30 August unknown Captain-general Martín de Vallecilla commanded the Spanish treasure fleet (Flota de Nueva España) of 41 ships that left Cadiz on 6 July. On 30 August about 20 leagues from "Islas Tranquilo and Arena" (location unknown) in 22 fathoms (132 ft; 40 m) of water, a southeasterly storm struck the fleet. The 400- or 500-ton carrack (nao in Spanish) San Miguel[12] under captaincy of Gaspar Conquero carried a cargo of 700 pipes of wine, 3000 ceramic jugs of wine, 150 boxes of mercury, and 75 bales of general merchandise. During the storm, this vessel split into two parts and sank so quickly that no one saved anything, "not even the crew or passengers." The fleet reached Vera Cruz on 4 September, where another vessel ran aground on the shoals.[11]
1615 Puerto Rico, Hispaniola 12 September some San Leoncio hurricane[13][14] Caused extensive damage to Cathedral of San Juan Bautista, to the agriculture, and to sugar crops.

The furious tempest occurred the day of San Leoncio, Saturday 12 September 1615, three days after full moon. Father Diego de Torres Vargas describes the storm. Arriving Bishop of Puerto Rico, Pedro de Solier y Vargas (OSA) experiences the storm, and it damaged Cathedral of San Juan Bautista. In the aftermath, people covered the Cathedral with straw thatch until His Majesty raised 4000 ducats in alms and the proceeds from the auction of the estate of Bishop Fray Martín Vázquez de Arce to cover it properly. The repairs included an arch and two pillars to support the crossing (architecture) of the Cathedral church.

A presentment to His Majesty Philip III of Spain, king of Iberian Union, tells of the storm when Captain General Felipe de Beaumont y Navarra served as Governor of Puerto Rico. This document, now archived at General Archive of the Indies, describes a great storm of water and air crashing houses of wood and some of stone, leaving others without door and window tiles. The storm hit the countryside with similar damage with some deaths and injuries to persons; it isolated and destroyed cassava and sugarcane. It drove aground carracks (naos in Spanish) and bajel es from the port with most of their cargo lost. The residents asked the king for a reduction in their tribute. Other commentators note that the storm destroyed the Capital of Puerto Rico.[15]

1616 Cuba End of September unknown Hurricane struck Oriente Province and particularly the city of Bayamo.[16]
1622 Straits of Florida (Bahamas, Florida Keys) 5 September > 1090 Lope Díez de Armendáriz, marqués de Cadereyta, commanded a convoy of seventeen vessels. A small hurricane of normal intensity struck the convoy south of Cay Sal Bank.[17] This convoy lost two Spanish ships. Millás lists the death toll variously as greater than 1090 and just 90.

In another incident that year (or, more likely, in different recollections of the same incident), after six crucial weeks of delays, Spanish treasure fleet and Tierra Firma fleet left Havana for Spain on or about the morning of 4 September despite the reluctance of some ship captains who suspected a brewing storm. Lope Díez de Armendáriz, marqués de Cadereyta, admiral Tomás de Larraspuru, and admiral don Pedro de Pasquier y Esparza jointly commanded the combined fleet of 28 ships: 17 cargo carracks (naos in Spanish), 8 registered treasure galleons, and 3 pataches. A hurricane hit that fleet on 5/6 September in Straits of Florida off Florida Keys. The lead ship Nuestra Señora de Candelaria and 20 other ships then passed west of the Dry Tortugas and safely into the Gulf of Mexico to ride out the storm. Several ships, however, wrecked:

  • Nuestra Señora de la Consolación capsized early in deep water and sank quickly. This ship may be among the merchant naos or another treasure galleon.
  • The interesting 600-ton treasure galleon Santa Margarita (shipwreck) under captaincy of Pedro Guerrero de Espinosa or Bernardino de Lugo carried 500,000 Spanish pesos of silver bullion, 1,000,000 additional Spanish pesos, tobacco, and other cargoes. The storm smashed her into an island of Los Mártires (as the Spanish then called the Florida Keys) west of Marquesas Keys, and she sank in 5 fathoms (30 ft; 9.1 m) of water. Of her 194 passengers and crew, 68 survived, including possible captain Bernardino de Lugo, who witnessed the sinking of Nuestra Señora de Atocha.
  • Two merchant carracks (naos in Spanish) of the Tierra Firma fleet wrecked against the Keys, apparently within an hour after the wreck of Santa Margarita.
  • Two other merchant carracks (naos in Spanish) of the Tierra Firma fleet swamped at sea and sank in deeper water, apparently within an hour after the wreck of Santa Margarita.
  • The heavily armed 600-ton registered treasure galleon Nuestra Señora de Atocha under captaincy of Jacome de Veider and ownership of Casa de Contratación followed the other ships of the fleet to repulse any attacks on its rear. She carried 901 70 pounds (32 kg) silver bars, 250,000 Spanish reals, tobacco, gold, and other treasure worth more than 1 million Spanish pesos in total; she also held considerable private luggage of various passengers. It swamped and sunk west of Marquesas Keys, 30 leagues from Havana and only one league from the wreck of Santa Margarita, at a depth of 10 fathoms (60 ft; 18 m), too deep for significant marine salvage with 17th-century technology. Of her 265 passengers and crew, three sailors and two slaves clung to the top of the mainmast (sailing) and survived; all the others, including admiral Pedro de Pasquier y Esparza, drowned.
  • The 600-ton treasure galleon Nuestra Señora del Rosario under captaincy of Francisco Rodriguez Rico or Miguel de Chazarreta and ownership of Gaspar de Vargas carried a half-million Spanish pesos of silver bullion and other treasure. She wrecked near the Dry Tortugas.
  • A patache, reconnoitering for the convoy, wrecked, probably off the southeast side of Tortugas Banks or near Loggerhead Key in Dry Tortugas.
  • The 117-ton Portuguese-built merchant carrack (nao in Spanish) Buen Jesús y Nuestra Señora del Rosario sailed under captaincy of Manuel Díaz and ownership of Juan de la Torre; the fleet also lost her in the Florida Keys.
  • The storm probably claimed one to four other ships at sea never seen again.

A different fleet that year (or this fleet) also lost the merchant carrack (nao in Spanish) Nuestra Señora de la Merced, probably in 1,500 feet (460 m) of water off the Dry Tortugas, which may be among the four merchant naos mentioned earlier.

In total, the hurricane drowned more than 1000 men aboard the ships this fleet. Many of the surviving ships jettisoned cannon and cargo before returning, battered and dismasted, to Havana. Spanish marine salvage operations began within a week and found the Nuestra Señora de Atocha, rescuing her five survivors. Because she sank in water too deep for common salvage operations, however, they recovered little treasure, and 2 fathoms (12 ft; 3.7 m) of sand reportedly buried her remains within a few months. Spanish marine salvage crews located and salvaged Nuestra Señora del Rosario and recovered probably at least half of the treasure from Santa Margarita (shipwreck) during the succeeding several years. Sand buried the remaining treasure. The Spanish treasure fleet did not return to Spain until the next year.

Mel Fisher salvaged Nuestra Señora de Atocha in 1985. Treasure hunters from Tampa in 1989 identified probable remains of Nuestra Señora de la Merced and recovered a bell and numerous gold bars. Nuestra Señora de Candelaria probably survived, but treasure hunters recently sought her. Mel Fisher Maritime Heritage Museum displays salvaged artifacts salvaged from the wreckage of this fleet.[18][19][20][21] This event may continue as another event this season.

1622 Bermuda 9 September unknown Struck at 31°N latitude, 150 leagues from Bermuda. Possibly identical with the hurricane of 5 September.[7]
1622 Old Bahama Channel unknown unknown Two Spanish merchant carracks (naos in Spanish) left Puerto Rico. Juan de Vargas, Governor of Puerto Rico, wrote to Philip IV of Spain, king of Iberian Union, about their loss in a hurricane in the Bahamian Channel. The account mentions the Nuestra Señora de Atocha shipwreck as occurring in the same year.[22] This event may continue as another event this season.
1622 offshore Florida unknown unknown The 180-ton Spanish carrack (nao in Spanish) Santa Ana Maria under captaincy of Gonçalo de la Roché sailed alone from Santo Domingo to Havana and from thence sailed for Spain. She sank during a storm in the high seas off the Florida coast.[19][23] This event may continue another event this season.
1623 Saint Kitts 29 September 150-250 The hurricane destroyed the first tobacco crop that the English planted on Saint Kitts. It also struck Federal Dependencies of Venezuela.[24]
1623 Cuba September 250 The Tierra Firma fleet or New Spain armada under captain general Antonio de Oquendo departed Havana on 26 April. The 480-ton Spanish galleon Espíritu Santo el Mayor under captaincy of Antonio de Soto carried 1 million Spanish pesos. At the mouth of the Bahama Channel, a storm generated huge waves that tossed the ships like corks. The Espíritu Santo el Mayor "opened and sank" in the gale or hurricane so quickly that the other ships rescued only 50 of the 300 persons aboard her; the other 250, including her captain, drowned, and Spain totally lost all her treasure. The 600-ton admiral galleon Santísima Trinidad under captaincy of Ysidro de Cepeda sank slowly enough that other vessels of the fleet saved all persons aboard her, and several pataches even recovered 1 million Spanish pesos of treasure. This tragedy occurred either on the high seas off West Palm Beach, Florida, or in nearshore waters of the Ais people on Treasure Coast of Florida.[4][19][25] Potter[26] gives a date of 20 April and suggests that the Almiranta, typically used in Spanish to refer to the ship of the admiral of the fleet, was instead a third lost vessel. Rappaport[27] dates this storm to September.
1623 Cuba early October unknown Antonio de Oquendo commanded a fleet, which a hurricane struck in the Old Bahama Channel, sinking two vessels.[28] Possibly identical with the Saint Kitts hurricane. Alternatively, this account may duplicate the previous storm.

1625–1649[edit]

Year Area(s) affected Date
(GC)
Deaths Damage/Notes
1625 Bahamas 11/12 August unknown [7]
1626 Puerto Rico 15 September 38 Known as the San Nicomedes hurricane (or perhaps erroneously as Santa Catalina de Genova), this storm sank three ships in the bay of San Juan.[4][14] Cayetano Coll y Toste writes of this storm, which occurred the year after Battle of San Juan (1625), which ruined large portions of the city. The storm destroyed plantations and limited the supply of cassava bread. River floods killed cattle and horses. Captain general Juan de Haro y Sanvítores, governor of Puerto Rico, reported that the currents killed 22 persons in the city, and that in one house in the countryside, 16 persons died. The loss of three cargo ships left nude survivors. Bernardo de Balbuena then served as bishop of San Juan. The bell tower of the convent of Saint Dominic collapsed, bringing down its vault (architecture) and the walls of the building and leaving the Religious without their cells. The tempest left the main chapel in a state that the religious celebrated Mass and Liturgy of the Hours elsewhere in its aftermath.[29]
1628 Mexico unknown unknown Made landfall near Mérida, Yucatán, Mexico.[7]
1631 Gulf of Mexico 21 October > 300 Admiral Manuel Serrano commanded Spanish treasure fleet (Flota de Nueva España in Spanish) of 19 ships, carrying 3,644,198 pesos in silver and gold, 5,408 arrobas (135,200 pounds (61,300 kg)) of cochineal, 3,879 arrobas (96,975 pounds (43,987 kg)) of inferior cochineal, 15,413 arrobas (385,325 pounds (174,780 kg)) of indigo (probably Indigofera tinctoria), 10,018 pounds (4,544 kg) of Chinese silk, 71,788 hide (skin), 6,858 quintales (685,800 pounds (311,100 kg)) of Caesalpinia echinata (brazilwood), 7,972 quintales (797,200 pounds (361,600 kg)) of Haematoxylum campechianum (palo de Campeche in Spanish), 119 boxes of chocolate, and 91 quintales (9,100 pounds (4,100 kg)) of molasses. The fleet left Vera Cruz for Havana and Spain on 14 October. A week after leaving port, a hurricane struck the fleet, and no vessel emerged intact.
  • The es:capitana (nave), Nuestra Señora del Juncal, sank 8 leagues north of "Bajo de las Áreas" (location unknown), and 35 of the 335 persons aboard her escaped in a small boat; the other 300 presumably drowned to death. The Spanish never located the wreck nor salvaged any of its cargo.
  • The carrack (nao in Spanish) San Antonio under captaincy of Antonio de Lajust wrecked 1 league "windward of the port of Tabasco"; marine salvage recovered most of its cargo of cochineal.
  • The carrack (nao in Spanish) under captaincy of Baltasar de Espinoza (or de España) wrecked very close to the port of Tabasco, and divers recovered 164,954 pesos in specie, 23 silver bars, 50 marcos in silver objects, and 9 marcos in golden objects.
  • Two other merchant carracks (naos in Spanish) wrecked on the coast of Campeche, but marine salvage recovered nothing from them.

The other 14 ships of this fleet vanished to an obscure fate; most likely, they sunk at sea without survivors.[30] Tropical cyclone status in doubt. Marx in one account[31] labels the storm a "norther," which could refer either to an especially ferocious cold front or to the western semicircle of a hurricane.

1634 western Cuba 5 October 40 A merchant carrack (nao in Spanish), carrying Maestro de Campo Francisco Riaño y Gamboa to Spain, sank in the port of Mariel, Cuba. A treasure galleon of Spanish treasure fleet under captaincy of Lope de Hoces wrecked in Florida. Indians apparently partially salvaged the wreckage. Luis de Horruytiner, governor of Florida, and his divers and canoes nevertheless recovered 100,000 pesos in registered treasure and took it to St. Augustine, Florida. On 20 December, the governor wrote to Antonio de Oquendo in Havana, relating this account.[4][32]
1635 Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut August 25 [O.S. August 16] 46+ Great Colonial Hurricane of 1635. Was a powerful New England hurricane that struck the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1635, just some fifteen years after the Mayflower struck land at Plymouth Rock. Made landfall near Narragansett Bay. The hurricane produced a storm surge of 4.3-6.1m (14–20 ft) in Narragansett, RI. Due to strong winds, heavy rainfall, and high tide, hundreds of trees were toppled, and homes were destroyed.[33]
1638 Massachusetts, Rhode Island,New England coastline August 13 [O.S. August 3] Caused very high tides in Narragansett Bay and Rhode Island, but unknown if made landfall [34]
1638 Saint Kitts (formerly Saint Christopher Island) August 15 [O.S. August 5] unknown Saint Christopher Island experienced a severe tropical storm. Peter Minuit (the man credited with buying the island of Manhattan from the Native Americans in exchange for traded goods) died during this hurricane at sea. On Peter's return from New Sweden in 1638, his ship made a side trip to the Caribbean to pick up a load of tobacco. While having dinner aboard a Dutch ship a hurricane forced all ships out to sea. Minuit and 't Vliegende Hart died during the storm. However, his ship the Kalmar Nyckel did make it back to Sweden without him. Unlikely connected storm with three 1838 storms affecting New England coastline this year given the date.
1638 Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Maine, New England coastline October 5 [O.S. September 25] Rain, winds, caused high tides in river and bay, but did little damage. Hurricane out at sea.[34]
1638 Massachusetts, New England coastline October 19 [O.S. October 9] Rain, winds. Did little damage. Hurricane encountered out at sea by few ships.[34]
1638 off south Puerto Rico October unknown French and English began to clear land on Saint Croix with Dutch assistance. They also opened trails, constructed dwellings, and traded with Carib people for two months. A "storm" or "tempest" threw two of their vessels onto the coastal reefs off Coamo, Puerto Rico. Two weakened survivors reached the shore aboard a longboat, and Spanish authorities took them prisoner and interrogated them. A sick Frenchman died within a few days, and they took the other prisoner to San Juan, Puerto Rico. Captain general Iñigo de la Mota Sarmiento, then Governor of Puerto Rico, wrote of these events on 6 April 1639.[35]
1640 Cuba 11 September unknown It disrupted Dutch fleet poised to attack Havana, Cuba, during Eighty Years' War. It affected 36 vessels and threw four of them ashore. Nearly all their sailors drowned to death except 260 saved.[4]
1641 Hispaniola to Florida 24 September many Many people perished from eight lost ships.[4]

Captain general (or admiral) Juan de Campos commanded the Spanish treasure fleet from Havana through Old Bahama Channel (or the northern extension of Straits of Florida) for Spain. During the Eighty Years' War, es:Armada de Barlovento protected Spanish ships returning from the Caribbean. A hurricane struck the fleet at 30°N latitude on 27 September and drove four ships back toward Cuba. Two of these ships wrecked near Havana, a third ship wrecked 6 leagues from Santiago de Cuba, and a fourth successfully returned to the port of Havana. Four merchant carracks (naos in Spanish) wrecked without survivors. The hurricane wrecked the patache of the fleet also wrecked; a priest and other survivors attempted to swim ashore, but sharks ate them all. Another patache from Havana located the wrecked patache 5 leagues from the Florida coast with some survivors still aboard her. Other ships in the convoy survived the storm with such damage that they later sank on the high seas.

The storm also separated the 680-ton almiranta galleon Nuestra Señora de la la Limpia y Pura Concepción under captaincy of Hernando Rodríquez from the remainder of the fleet; she drifted without mast (sailing) or rudder and wrecked on the north side of Abreojos (now Silver Bank) off Hispaniola. More than six hundred persons aboard her swam to a nearby sandbar and constructed makeshift rafts and boats from the wreck. Two hundred survivors then traveled toward Santo Domingo, but most perished before the few survivors reached that destination. Although authorities in Santo Domingo sent a vessel to rescue the stranded, no one survived on the sandbar when it returned. Sir William Phips of Britain in 1687 operated from Port Royal, Jamaica, to recover more than 2 million pesos of silver—twice the registered amount of treasure—from this sunken galleon, setting a world record for value of treasure recovered from a shipwreck. Bermudian and other marine salvage operations of his era recovered more treasure.[36] Burt Webber circa 1979 nevertheless found more valuable cargo: more than 95,000 silver coins, Ming Dynasty ceramics, gold chains, and other artifacts.

1642 Lesser Antilles September many Men in twenty-two ships apparently drowned to death. Father Jean-Baptiste Du Tertre, a Dominican missionary to the Antilles, accounted three hurricanes this year and describes the second as the worst. This storm struck Guadeloupe, Martinique, and Saint Kitts (then called Saint Christopher) hardest. It featured extraordinarily violent winds and abundant rains and lasted 24 hours. At Saint Christopher, it drove 23 fully laden ships ashore, drowning many among their crews. Several sources suggest that Dutch admiral Michiel de Ruyter lost a ship in the storm; others place him far from the Antilles and suggest that he lost no ships. Juan Damián López de Haro, who arrived as bishop of Puerto Rico in 1644, wrote a letter to a friend, describing the aftermath of the hurricane in his diocese. He noted that it destroyed the transept of a parish church, pulled trees and huts, and left the soil barren. It also killed most crops, pigs, and cattle, leading authorities to import cassava and maize from Isla Margarita to feed the needy survivors. A hurricane also struck Santo Domingo.[37]

At Saint Kitts and Nevis, several ships containing tobacco ran aground and poisoned the water, killing thousands of fish.[24]

1643 Antigua and Barbuda 20/21 August unknown [7]
1644 Western Cuba, Straits of Florida (Florida Keys) October ~1100 According to a later history of Franciscan priest-historian Diego López de Cogolludo, an English pirate armada of 13 hulk (medieval ship type) (urcas in Spanish) carrying 1500 men under Jacob Jackson (possibly William Jackson (pirate)) encountered this storm. In September, the fleet captured two Franciscan priests, Antonio Vazquez and Andres Navarro, from a village in Mexico; the vessel also held eight other Spanish prisoners. Three vessels stranded on arcas (perhaps rocks), and ten continued for Havana. Before leaving Old Bahama Channel, they suffered a violent southeasterly hurricane during which nine of the ten ships sank. During a lull in the storm (perhaps the eye), the sole surviving ship deposited the ten Spaniards ashore, allegedly in Florida but perhaps in Cuba. The hurricane resumed from the opposite direction, and the ship sank also. Despite great hardships, the Franciscans eventually arrived in Havana to tell the tale.[38]
1646 Cuba 17 October unknown [7]
1649 Virginia unknown unknown Damaged tobacco crop

1650–1674[edit]

Year Area(s) affected Date
(GC)
Deaths Damage/Notes
1650 Saint Kitts unknown numerous Father Jean-Baptiste Du Tertre wrote in his history of greatly violent storms that threw 28 ships on the roadstead of Saint Christopher (probably Basseterre on Saint Kitts). The disaster included sailors drowned and merchandise lost. Du Tertre notes that Dutch Admiral Michiel de Ruyter avoided misfortune in the storm, but he probably passed the year near the Barbary Coast. José Carlos Millás suggests that the center of the hurricane passed north of the island.[39] Two hurricanes caused this disaster, and the 28 merchantmen of different nationalities lost more than a half-million pound sterling in cargo value.[40]
1652 Leeward Islands 23/24 September many Prince Rupert of the Rhine, an English Royalist cavalier, commanded a privateer fleet of several ships. His fleet crossed the Atlantic in late spring 1652 with his brother Prince Maurice of the Palatinate aboard a vessel, traveling through the Antilles from Saint Lucia to the Virgin Islands. The fleet left the Virgin Islands on 8 September [O.S. 29 August], sailing several leagues north-northeastward with four ships. The fleet encountered a "great northern sea," swells from a fierce storm farther north, on 15 September [O.S. 5 September].

Father Pierre Pelleprat at Saint Kitts related that the hurricane destroyed four or five loaded merchant vessels at Sandy Point Town. A large Dutch fluyt "resisted the sea" and enabled him to aid "two men that only awaited death behind this ship."

This terrible hurricane hit the fleet of Prince Rupert of the Rhine on 23 September [O.S. 13 September] and scattered the ships. The men aboard the Swallow, including Prince Rupert, took in most of their sails; the storm destroyed the remaining sails. In the northerly hurricane, the Swallow passed within a half-league of Sombrero, Anguilla, and near Anguillita before increasingly easterly winds took him and his vessel to anchorage near an uninhabited island among the Virgin Islands. Meanwhile, the hurricane scattered the fleet, driving the Honest Seaman ashore on Porto Pina in Hispaniola. The Defiance with Prince Maurice of the Palatinate aboard her vanished into obscurity, probably sinking in the hurricane with her crew; another ship and her crew shared her fate. The hurricane subsided after three or four days, ending on 25/26 September [O.S. 15/16 September]. José Carlos Millás suggests that a slow-moving hurricane battered islands from Martinique through Puerto Rico and parts of Hispaniola with the center passing just south of Saint Martin.

Prince Rupert gradually recognized the loss of his brother and grieved terribly. Still, he captured four ships as prizes in the Antilles before returning to Nantes in France early the next year. Cardinal Mazarin bought the ships and stores; Prince Rupert split the limited profit spoils with exiled Charles II of England.[41][42]

1653 Barbados and Saint Vincent (island) 13 July many Father Meland and Father Pierre Pelleprat sailed from Martinique on 20 June 1653 but becalmed in the bays off the east coast of Saint Vincent (island). The men aboard the ship unfurled the sails, and after the hurricane arose suddenly, the ship moved away from the coast, evading the dangers associated with running aground. Father Guillaume Aubergeon lived on the island when a violent hurricane overturned the huts and threw many into the sea. It "caused the deaths of many savages" (Carib people) uprooted plants, and damaged the landscape. José Carlos Millás relates the loss of one ship and crew lost at Saint Vincent (island). He also suggests that this hurricane probably also struck Barbados given the normal track of tropical cyclones in the easterlies.

Another hurricane burst forth on 1 October.[43]

1656 Guadeloupe 4 August unknown

Jean-Baptiste Du Tertre reported on a fearful, tremendous hurricane that desolated Guadeloupe. It destroyed most houses, killed all domestic animals, laid waste all plantations, wrecked every vessel at anchor in the roadstead, and drowned most of their crews.[44][45][46][47][48]

A different hurricane also struck the Antilles this year.

1657 Off Bahamas N/A N/A Within the Tierra Firme fleet from Veracruz, Veracruz, Nuestra Señora de las Maravillas collided with another Spanish vessel despite good weather and sunk in the Straits of Florida with 5 million pesos of silver. Several marine salvage operators aimed to recover this silver. This storm sunk two small marine salvage vessels with considerable recovered treasure off the south side of Gorda Cay (now Castaway Cay). The survivors recovered and buried the treasure on the island until Spanish ships came to their rescue and removed most of the treasure the following year. The Spanish ultimately recovered 1.5 million pesos of silver from the original wreck.[49][49][50][51]

A tropical cyclone also struck Guadeloupe this season.

1661 Veracruz, Veracruz 14 August This tropical storm caused several damages in San Juan de Ulúa and Veracruz, Veracruz.[52]
1664 Cuba September [7]
1664 Guadeloupe October 22 N/A Massive crop damage; nearly caused famine
1665 Veracruz, Veracruz 15 September The depression or tropical storm caused damages in Veracruz, Veracruz.[52]
1666 Martinique and Guadeloupe 14/15 August [O.S. 4/5 August] < 2000 This storm struck Marie-Galante, Îles des Saintes, and the rest of Guadeloupe. It also struck Saint Christopher (now Saint Kitts) and Martinique. English Admiral Francis Willoughby, 5th Baron Willoughby of Parham, commanded a fleet of 17 sail and 2000 troops. The hurricane destroyed the fleet and killed the admiral. At least two ship survived.[53]
1666 Puerto Rico [7]
1667 St. Christopher, Nevis, Virginia, Outer Banks, NC September 6 [O.S. August 27] Many people Hurricane made landfall just to the northeast of Jamestown, Virginia. The hurricane lasted 24 hours, bringing with it violent winds, heavy rains, and a 3.7 m (12 ft) storm surge. Approximately 10,000 houses were destroyed. The colonists’ tobacco and corn crops were lost, their cattle drowned, and their ships were greatly damaged. Considered to be one of the most severe hurricanes to ever strike Virginia. Rain was reported to have fallen for twelve straight days after the storm.[54]
1669 Nevis, Cuba, North Carolina August 17–23 182 N/A
1669 St. Kitts September N/A Twenty five ships lost
1670 Jamaica October 7 N/A Drove English fleet of ships ashore
1671 Mexico September 22–25 [7]
1672 Venezuela and Mexico September [7]
1673 Puerto Rico N/A Few One ship wrecked, all made it safe to shore
1674 Barbados August 10 200 N/A
1674 St. Augustine, Florida August 19 N/A Likely continuation of above, flooding, property and crop damage

1675–1699[edit]

     – only paleotempestological evidence

Year Area(s) affected Date
(GC)
Deaths Damage/Notes
1675 Connecticut, Rhode Island, Boston September 7 [O.S. August 28] The Second Great Colonial Hurricane. A hurricane said to be almost as powerful as the 1635 New England Hurricane [55]
1675 Barbados September 10 200 N/A
1675 Cuba through Mexico September 15–22 [7]
1678 Mexico September 2–13 [7]
1678 Mexico September 14–19 [7]
1680 Martinique August 3 Many 22 Ships lost
1680 Barbados, Dominican Republic, British Isles August 11–23 Many Wrecked 25 French ships and several Spanish ships.[56] Landfall near Santo Domingo, later caused shipwrecks in the British Isles while extratropical; track produced in 2009 based on ship data[57]
1681 St. Kitts and Nevis September 6 N/A At least one house blown down.
1681 Western Caribbean Sea N/A "Considerable from drowning" N/A
1681 St. Kitts and Nevis October 14 N/A Roof of same house as the September hurricane blown off again. Twenty-five of the thirty or so horses perished on a ship owned by two New Englanders, Captain Cushing and Captain Clark off the coast of Nevis.
1683 North Carolina, Virginia, Connecticut August 23 [O.S. August 13] N/A Strong winds and torrential rain. Reported to cause tremendous flooding of rivers in Connecticut.[58]
1683 Florida East Coast N/A 496 N/A
1683 Venezuela October 22 [7]
1686 South Carolina September 4–5 [O.S. August 25–26] The Spanish Repulse Hurricane of 1686. The Spanish attacked the English South Carolina settlement near Beaufort/Stuart Town. A hurricane came and destroyed all of the houses, flooded the town, killed cattle, ruined crops, and knocked down a great number of trees. The Spanish ships were all washed ashore and they had to abandon the attack. [59]
1689 Nevis N/A Half the inhabitants of the island N/A
1689 Jamaica unknown unknown hurricane not very severe[60]
1692 Jamaica N/A 100 A "dreadful hurricane" (Oldmixon) struck the island shortly after a severe earthquake.[61]
~1692 Belize N/A N/A A major hurricane landfall identified in sediment cores from the Great Blue Hole.[62]
1693 Mid-Atlantic states, New England October 29 [O.S. October 19] N/A The Accomack Storm of 1693. Created new inlets, flooding. May have had a significant effect on the New York City area and Fire Island, but little historical documentation is available. May have been similar to Hurricane Sandy 319 years later.[58]
1694 Barbados September 27 1000 N/A
1695 Florida Keys October 4 N/A 1 ship destroyed
1695 Martinique October 600 N/A
1696 Western Cuba N/A N/A Heavy flooding, 1 ship lost
1696 East Coast South Florida October 3–4 [O.S. September 23–24] N/A A hurricane of unknown strength impacted South Florida. Jonathan Dickinson, a Quaker merchant, and several of his traveling companions aboard the bark Reformation fell victim to the high seas whipped up by the storm. Tossed and battered by persistent wind and waves, the Reformation wrecked on a sandbar near what is today known as Jupiter Inlet.[63]
1698 Florida December 12 [7]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Marx 1983, p. 244
  2. ^ Millás 1968, p. 92
  3. ^ Marx 1983, pp. 244–245
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i Millás 1968
  5. ^ Millás 1968, pp. 95–97
  6. ^ Marx 1983, pp. 415–416
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Garcia-Herrera 2005
  8. ^ Ludlum 1963, p. 214
  9. ^ Villiers, Alan (1957), Wild ocean: the story of the North Atlantic and the men who sailed it, Oceans of the world (3), New York: McGraw-Hill, p. 326 
  10. ^ Millás 1968, p. 99
  11. ^ a b Marx 1983, pp. 246–247
  12. ^ Chaunu, Huguette; Chaunu, Pierre (1955–1960), Séville et l'Atlantique (1504–1650) (in French), 12, Paris: Librairie Armand Colin 
  13. ^ Millás 1968, p. 100
  14. ^ a b Mújica-Baker, Frank. Huracanes y Tormentas que han afectadi a Puerto Rico (PDF). Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, Agencia Estatal para el manejo de Emergencias y Administracion de Desastres. p. 7. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 1, 2015. Retrieved August 30, 2010. 
  15. ^ Salivia 1972, pp. 62–64
  16. ^ Millás 1968, pp. 101–102
  17. ^ Millás 1968, pp. 102–104
  18. ^ Singer 1992, pp. 65–67
  19. ^ a b c Marx 1985
  20. ^ Matthewson, R. Duncan III (1987), Treasure of the Atocha, New York: Pisces Books, p. 160, ISBN 9780525244974, OCLC 12973364 
  21. ^ Potter 1972, pp. 232–233
  22. ^ Cardona Bonet 1989, pp. 234–235
  23. ^ Singer 1992, pp. 208
  24. ^ a b Hubbard, Vincent K. (1996). Swords, Ships & Sugar: History of Nevis to 1900 (4th ed.). Corvallis, Oregon: Premiere. ISBN 0-9633818-5-7.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Hubbard" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  25. ^ Singer 1992, pp. 134
  26. ^ Potter 1972, pp. 248
  27. ^ Rappaport 1995
  28. ^ Millás 1968, pp. 104–105
  29. ^ Salivia 1972, pp. 65–67
  30. ^ Marx 1983, pp. 249–250
  31. ^ Marx, Robert F. (1981), Romero, Pablo Bush, ed., Shipwrecks in Mexican waters, translated by Janet Nelson de Zamblʹe (1st English translated and revised ed.), Mexico City: Club de exploraciones y deportes acuáticos de México, p. 76, OCLC 15736460 
  32. ^ Marx 1983, pp. 204, 349
  33. ^ Early American hurricanes 1492-1870, David Ludlum, pg 10
  34. ^ a b c Early American hurricanes 1492-1870, David Ludlum, pg 13
  35. ^ Cardona Bonet 1989, pp. 266–267
  36. ^ Marx 1983, pp. 36–37, 204, 315
  37. ^ Millás 1968, pp. 113–116
  38. ^ Millás 1968, pp. 117–118
  39. ^ Millás 1968, pp. 118–119
  40. ^ Marx 1983, pp. 264–265
  41. ^ Millás 1968, pp. 120–122
  42. ^  Lee, Sidney, ed. (1897). "Rupert". Dictionary of National Biography. 49. London: Smith, Elder & Co. p. 413. 
  43. ^ Millás 1968, pp. 123–124
  44. ^ Alexander, William H. (1902), Hurricanes: especially those of Porto Rico and St. Kitts., Bulletin (No. 32), United States Department of Agriculture, Weather Bureau, pp. 69–70 
  45. ^ Southey, Captain Thomas (1827), Chronological history of the West Indies, II, London: Longman, p. 14, OCLC 05925550 
  46. ^ Schomburgk, Sir Robert Hermann (1848), The history of Barbados, London: Longman, p. 689, OCLC 18953299 
  47. ^ Garriott, Edward Bennett (1900), West Indian hurricanes (Bulletin H), U.S. Department of Agriculture, Weather Bureau, p. 23, OCLC 19854416 
  48. ^ Evans, "Stormy" Jack (August–October 1848), "A chronological list of hurricanes which have occurred in the West Indies since the year 1493; with interesting descriptions", The Nautical Magazine and Naval Chronicle, London, 17 (8, 9, and 10): 397–405, 453–462, 524–530 [401] 
  49. ^ a b Walton 1994, p. 128
  50. ^ Peterson 1975
  51. ^ Marx 1983, p. 316
  52. ^ a b Alavarez, Humberto Bravo, Rodolfo Sosa Echeverria, Pablo Sanchez Alavarez, and Arturo Butron Silva (2006-06-22). "Inundaciones 2005 en el Estado de Veracruz" (PDF). Universidad Veracruzana. p. 317. Retrieved 2012-07-22.  |article= ignored (help)
  53. ^ Millás 1968, pp. 4, 13, 130–132
  54. ^ Early American hurricanes 1492-1870, David Ludlum, pg 14
  55. ^ Early American hurricanes 1492-1870, David Ludlum, pg 16
  56. ^ Edward N. Rappaport; Jose Fernandez-Partagas; Jack Beven (1997-04-02). "Appendix 2: Cyclones that may have 25+ deaths". The Deadliest Atlantic Tropical Cyclones, 1492-1996 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2013-10-27. 
  57. ^ D. Wheeler; et al. (July 2009). "Reconstructing the Trajectory of the August 1680 Hurricane from Contemporary Records" (PDF). Bureau of the American Meteorological Society. doi:10.1175/2009BAMS2649.1. Retrieved 2013-10-27. 
  58. ^ a b Early American hurricanes 1492-1870, David Ludlum, pg 17
  59. ^ Early American hurricanes 1492-1870, David Ludlum, pg 41
  60. ^ "Hurricanes in Jamaica, West Indies". Monthly Weather Review. 28 (12): 550. 1900. Bibcode:1900MWRv...28Q.550.. doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1900)28[550a:HIJWI]2.0.CO;2Hurricanes in Jamaica, West Indies 
  61. ^ Millás (1968, pp. 154–155)
  62. ^ Gischler, Eberhard; Shinn, Eugene A.; Oschmann, Wolfgang; Fiebig, Jens; Buster, Noreen A. (2008). "A 1500-Year Holocene Caribbean Climate Archive from the Blue Hole, Lighthouse Reef, Belize". Journal of Coastal Research. 24 (6): 1495–1505. doi:10.2112/07-0891.1. 
  63. ^ Early American hurricanes 1492-1870, David Ludlum, pg 191

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]