1602 in science
- Vincenzio Cascarido discovers barium sulfide.
- Commencement of publication of Theatrum Chemicum, a compendium of European alchemical writings.
- May 15 – Bartolomew Gosnold becomes the first European to discover Cape Cod.
- Henry Briggs publishes his first mathematical work A Table to find the Height of the Pole, the Magnetical Declination being given in London.
- Felix Plater publishes Praxis medica classifying diseases by their symptoms.
- March 18 – Jacques de Billy, French Jesuit mathematician (died 1679)
- August 8 – Gilles de Roberval, French mathematician (died 1675)
- November 20 – Otto von Guericke, German physicist (died 1686)