1606 in science
- The cryptographic text Steganographia, written by Johannes Trithemius c.1499/1500, is published in Frankfurt.
- February 26
- March – The Duke of York's ship Duyfken, under Captain Willem Janszoon, explores the western coast of Cape York Peninsula.
- May – Pedro Fernandes de Queirós discovers the islands of Vanuatu; believing them to be Australia, he names them La Austrialia del Espiritu Santo.
- October – Luís Vaz de Torres is the first European to sail through the Torres Strait.
- September 28 – Nicolaus Taurellus, German philosopher and scientist (born 1547)
- November 13 – Girolamo Mercuriale, Italian physician and historian (born 1530)
- Lucas Janszoon Waghenaer, Dutch nautical chart maker (born 1533/4)
- McHugh, Evan (2006). 1606: An Epic Adventure. Sydney: University of New South Wales Press. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-86840-866-8.
- Richardson, William A. R. (2008). Was Australia Charted Before 1606: the Jave la Grande Inscriptions. Australia: Everbest. p. 20.
- Drake, Stillman (2003). Galileo at Work: His Scientific Biography. Mineola, NY: Dover. p. 121.