160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment (Airborne)

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160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment (Airborne)
160th SOAR emblem.svg
Founded 1981; 36 years ago (1981)
Country  United States of America
Branch  United States Army
Type Special operations aviation
Size ~2,700
Part of USASOAC DUI.png U.S. Army Special Operations Aviation Command[1]
Garrison/HQ Fort Campbell, Kentucky, U.S.
Nickname(s) "Night Stalkers", "160th SOAR (A)", "Task Force Brown"
Motto(s) "Night Stalkers don't quit!", "Death waits in the dark!", "Six guns don't miss!"
Engagements

Invasion of Grenada
Operation Mount Hope III
Operation Earnest Will
Operation Mount Hope III
Operation Prime Chance
Invasion of Panama
Persian Gulf War
Operation Neptune Spear
Somali Civil War

Global War on Terrorism

Insignia
Beret flash
160thflash.png
Current CSIB
U.S. Army Special Operations Aviation Command CSIB.png
Former CSIB
US Army Special Operations Command CSIB.png

The United States Army 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment (Airborne), abbreviated as the 160th SOAR (A) and also known as Night Stalkers, or within JSOC as Task Force Brown,[2] is a special operations force of the United States Army that provides helicopter aviation support for general purpose forces and special operations forces. Its missions have included attack, assault, and reconnaissance, and are usually conducted at night, at high speeds, low altitudes, and on short notice. The 160th SOAR is headquartered at Fort Campbell, Kentucky.

Overview[edit]

The 160th SOAR (A) consists of the Army's best-qualified aviators, Crew Chiefs and support soldiers. Officers volunteer while enlisted soldiers volunteer or are assigned by the U.S. Army Human Resources Command. All soldiers receive intensive training upon joining the 160th and are required to pass the Green Platoon course.[3] The basic Night Stalker course for enlisted soldiers lasts five weeks; the officer course lasts 20 to 28 weeks.

A new Night Stalker arrives to his unit Basic Mission Qualified (BMQ); after a series of skills test qualifications, experience and leadership and oral review boards, lasting up to three years the Night Stalker is designated Fully Mission Qualified (FMQ). After three to five years as an FMQ, the Night Stalker will have the chance to assess for flight lead qualification. The 160th previously recruited only men for combat positions,[4]

Equipment[edit]

A pair of MH-60L Blackhawk helicopters, prepare to land on USS Bataan.
An MH-6 carrying army rangers prepares to land during an infiltration demonstration at the Kansas Speedway 400 in 2008.

The 160th SOAR fly MH-47G Chinooks, A/MH-6M Little Birds and MH-60M Black Hawks.

Aircraft Type Inventory[5]
MH/AH-6M Little Bird 51
MH-47G Chinook 61
MH-60M Black Hawk 72
Total 184

History[edit]

1980s and 1990s[edit]

After the 1980 Operation Eagle Claw attempt to rescue American hostages held in Tehran, Iran, failed, President Jimmy Carter ordered former Chief of Naval Operations Adm. James L. Holloway III to figure out how the U.S. military could best mount another attempt. At the time there were no U.S. helicopter units trained in this kind of stealthy, short-notice Special Operations mission.

The Army looked to the 101st Aviation Group, the air arm of the 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault), which had the most diverse operating experience of the service's helicopter units, and selected elements of the 158th Aviation Battalion, 101st Aviation Battalion, 229th Aviation Battalion, and the 159th Aviation Battalion. The chosen pilots immediately entered intensive training in night flying.

This provisional unit was at first dubbed Task Force 158 since the majority of the pilots were Blackhawk aviators detached from the 158th. Their distinctive 101st "Screaming Eagle" patches remained on their uniforms. The Blackhawks and Chinooks continued to operate around Campbell Army Airfield at the north of post, and Saber Army Heliport at the south. The OH-6 Cayuses, an aircraft that had vanished from the division's regular inventory after Vietnam, were hidden on the base by an ammunition holding area still known as the "SHOC Pad", for "Special Helicopter Operations Company".

As the first batch of pilots completed training in the fall of 1980, a second attempt to rescue the hostages was planned for early 1981. Dubbed Operation Honey Badger, it was called off when the hostages were released on the morning of President Ronald Reagan's inauguration.

The capability gained was judged too important to future contingencies to lose. The new unit was quickly recognized as the Army's premier night fighting aviation force, and its only Special Operations Aviation force. The pilots and modified aircraft would not be returned to the 101st. Original members of the Night Stalkers refer to it as "the day the Eagles came off". The 101st's patches came off, the personnel and equipment would be reassigned, and a new tradition was born. The unit was officially established on 16 October 1981, when it was designated as the 160th Aviation Battalion.

The 160th first saw combat during 1983's Operation Urgent Fury, the U.S. invasion of Grenada.

The crew of Super 6-4 one month before the Battle of Mogadishu. From left: Winn Mahuron, Tommy Field, Bill Cleveland, Ray Frank and Michael Durant.

In 1986, it was re-designated as the 160th Aviation Group (Airborne); and in May 1990, the 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment (Airborne). As demand for highly trained Special Operations Aviation assets bloomed, the regiment activated three battalions, a separate detachment, and incorporated one Army National Guard unit, the 1st Battalion, 245th Aviation (OK ARNG).

In 1987 and 1988, its pilots took part in Operation Earnest Will, the protection of re-flagged Kuwaiti tankers in the Persian Gulf during the Iran–Iraq War. They flew from US Navy warships and leased oil barges in a secret sub-part called Operation Prime Chance, and became the first helicopter pilots to use night vision goggles and forward looking infrared devices in night combat.

In June 1988, the unit executed Operation Mount Hope III. Two MH-47 crews flew 490 miles (790 km) deep into Chad to retrieve a crashed Mi-24 Hind medium-attack helicopter.

The Night Stalkers spearheaded Operation Just Cause, the 1989 invasion of Panama, and they were also used in Operation Desert Storm in 1991.

In October 1993 in Somalia, Night Stalkers became involved in the Battle of Mogadishu, which later became the subject of the book Black Hawk Down, and its film adaptation. Two Night Stalker Black Hawks, Super 6-1 (piloted by Cliff Wolcott), and Super 6-4 (piloted by Mike Durant), were shot down in the battle. Five of the eighteen men killed (not counting a nineteenth post-operation casualty) in the Battle of Mogadishu were members of the SOAR(A) Night Stalkers team, who were lost along with the two Black Hawks.

Global War on Terrorism[edit]

During the 2001 invasion of Afghanistan, the Nightstalkers from 2nd Battalion 160th SOAR were tasked with supporting Task Force Dagger, Nightstalkers were also tasked with supporting Task Force Sword, their component in TF Sword was known as Task Force Brown, both TFs were established in early October 2001.[6] In the evening of 18 October into 19 October 2001, two SOAR MH-47E helicopters, escorted by MH-60L DAPs (Direct Action Penetrators), airlifted Operational Detachment Alpha (ODA) 555 and 595, both 12-man Green Beret teams from the 5th SFG,[7] plus four Air Force Combat Controllers, from the Karshi-Khanabad Air Base in Uzbekistan[8] more than 300 kilometers (190 mi) across the 16,000 feet (4,900 m) Hindu Kush mountains into Afghanistan. The pilots of the Chinooks, flying in zero-visibility conditions, were refueled in-flight three times during the 11-hour mission, establishing a new world record for combat rotorcraft missions at the time. They linked up with the CIA and Northern Alliance. Within a few weeks the Northern Alliance, with assistance from the U.S. ground and air forces, captured several key cities from the Taliban.[9][10] In November 2001, the Nightstalker AH-6J Little birds took part Objective Wolverine and Raptor missions and Operation Relentless Strike.[11] In December 2001, Night Stalker crews were essential in resupplying over 150 Delta Force, British SBS and CIA SAD operatives during their hunt for Osama bin Laden in the Tora Bora mountain complex.[12]

In January 2002, in Afghanistan, Task Force Sword was renamed Task Force 11 and was manned by a DEVGRU, a company of Rangers and were supported by a company of helicopters from the 160th SOAR. On 21 February 2002, whilst scouting Islamist terrorists on Basilan Island and seeking to rescue a nurse and an American missionary couple, a MH-47 crashed at sea in the Bohol Strait, southern Philippines killing 10 servicemen (8 from E company, 160th SOAR and 2 from the 353rd Special Operations Group).[13][14][15] In March 2002, Nightstalkers from B company 2nd Battalion 160th SOAR supported coalition troops during Operation Anaconda, particularly at the Battle of Takur Ghar on March 4, where one of their MH-47E, callsign: Razor 03, was damaged by RPG fire and crash-landed carrying Mako 30. A second MH-47E, callsign: Razor 01, that was responding to the shootdown and carrying a QRF, was damaged by small arms and RPG fire and crash landed, by the end of the battle, one Nightstalker was killed. On 21 June 2002 in the Philippines, Nightstalker MH-47Es were involved in the operation that killed Abu Sabaya, a senior leader in the ASG. A US Predator UAV marked the HVT with an infrared laser as he tried to escape in a smugglers boat, the MH-47Es used search lights mounted on their helicopters to pinpoint the target's boat while operators from the Philippine Naval Special Operations Group opened fire on the boat killing the terrorist leader and capturing 4 other terrorists with him.[16]

A US Army MH-47 Chinook, lands aboard the USS Kearsarge

During the 2003 invasion of Iraq, 3rd Battalion 160th SOAR deployed as the Joint Special Operations Air Detachment-West under CJSOTF-West (Combined Joint Special Operations Task Force-West/Task Force Dagger), they were equipped with 8 MH-47E Chinooks, 4 MH-60L DAPs, and 2 MH-60M Black Hawks. At 21:00 on 19 March 2003, the first strike of Operation Iraqi Freedom was carried out by members of the 160th SOAR: a flight of MH-60L DAPs and four 'Black Swarm' flights - each consisting of a pair of AH-6M Little Birds and a FLIR equipped MH-6M to identify targets for the AH-6s (each Black swarm flight was assigned a pair of A-10As) engaged Iraqi visual observation posts along the southern and western borders of Iraq. In the space of seven hours, more than 70 sites were destroyed, effectively depriving the Iraqi military of any early warning of the coming invasion. As the sites were eliminated the first heliborne SOF teams launched from H-5 airbase in Jordan, including vehicle-mounted patrols from the British and Australian special forces, who were transported by the MH-47Es of the 160th SOAR. Nightstalkers from 1st Battalion 160th SOAR were tasked with supporting Task Force 20 with its MH-60M Blackhawks, MH-60L DAPs, MH-6M transport and AH-6M Little Birds, they based at Ar'Ar. On March 26, the 160th SOAR took part in the Objective Beaver mission, a raid by DEVGRU on a complex known as al Qadisiyah Research Centre that was suspected to have stocks of Chemical and Biological weapons. On April 1, 2003, the 160th SOAR took part in the rescue mission of PFC Jessica Lynch who was taken prisoner during the Battle of Nasiriyah. On April 2, a Delta Force squadron operating in Iraq was ambushed by half a dozen armed technicals from an anti-special forces Fedayeen, 2 MH-60K Blackhawks carrying a para jumper medical team and 2 MH-60L DAPs of the 160th SOAR responded and engaged the Iraqis, which allowed the Delta operators to move their 2 casualties to an emergency HLZ, however one Delta Force operator succumbed to his wounds.[17]

On the evening of December 13, 2003, Saddam Hussein was captured by US forces in Operation Red Dawn, he was exfiltrated by a MH-6 Little Bird from the 160th SOAR and he was taken into custody at Baghdad International Airport.[18]

In 2004 they took part in the rescue of three Italian contractors and one Polish businessman held for ransom by Iraqi insurgents.

In Afghanistan in 2005: Eight Night Stalkers were lost along with eight Navy SEALs on a rescue mission for Marcus Luttrell, after their MH-47 Chinook helicopter was hit by an RPG (rocket propelled grenade). They were sent out to look for Luttrell after Operation Red Wings, in which he was involved with three other SEALs, was compromised and Luttrell's teammates killed.

In March 2006, allegedly under the codename: Operation Vigilant Harvest SEALS from DEVGRU and Rangers were flown by the 160th SOAR into in North Waziristan, Pakistan, to assault an al-Qaeda training camp, the assaulters killed as many as 30 terrorists including the camps commandant.[19] On 14 May 2006, helicopters from the 160th SOAR were inserting operators from B squadron Delta Force in Yusufiyah, Iraq, so they could conduct a mission against al-Qaeda fighters in several, buildings/dwellings. As the Operators disembarked their helicopters they come under fire from a nearby house, the situation rapidly escalated into a battle quickly as more al-Qaeda fighters joined the firefight. The 160th's Black Hawks door gunners engaged the insurgents and a pair of AH-6M Little Birds carried out strafing runs, however one Little Bird from B company 1st Battalion 160th SOAR was shot down, an estimated 25 al-Qaeda fighters were killed in the mission.[20][21] In July 2006, a pair of MH-47Es from 160th SOAR attempted to insert a combined strike element of DEVGRU, Rangers and Afghan commandos in Helmand Province, Afghanistan, so it could attack a target compound. With some troops on the ground, a large insurgent force ambushed them, both helicopters were struck by small arms fire, one MH-47E pilot put his aircraft directly in the line of fire protecting the other MH-47E whose assault team it was carrying was still disembarking. Inevitably the MH-47E was hit by an RPG which caused it to crash-land, the skill of the Nightstalker pilots saved the operators and the aircrew, no one was seriously wounded in the crash. The Ranger commander and an attached Australian Commando organised an all-round defence while the other MH-47E held back the advancing insurgents until its miniguns ran out of ammunition, an AC-130 Spectre joined the battle and kept the down crew and passengers safe until a British Immediate Response Team helicopter successfully recovered them, the AC-130 then destroyed the MH-47E wreck - denying it to the Taliban.[22]

Night Stalker helicopters were present during the 2008 SOCOM counter-terror exercises in Denver.[23] On 24 April 2008, Company D, 3rd Battalion, 160th SOAR was inactivated at a ceremony conducted at Hunter Army Airfield, GA, as part of an overall regimental transformation plan.[24] The 160th SOAR also took part in the 2008 Abu Kamal raid.

On 19 August 2009, four Night Stalkers from D Company, 1st Battalion, 160th SOAR lost their lives in a MH-60 Black Hawk helicopter crash in Leadville, Colorado, during a mountain and environmental training.[25] On 9 September 2009 in Afghanistan, Nightstalkers inserted the British SBS and SFSG into Kunduz Province to rescue Times journalist Stephen Farrell after he and his Afghan interpreter were captured by the Taliban. On 19 September 2009 in Somalia, the Nightstalkers took part in Operation Celestial Balance, the target was a senior terrorist leader connected to al-Qaeda affiliated organisations. The assault force (4 AH-6M Little Birds and 4 MH-60L Blackhawks) carried in DEVGRU operators to kill or capture the target. AH-6Ms strafed the two-vehicle convoy killing the target along with 3 other al-Shabaab terrorists and carried out an overwatch whilst DEVGRU cleared the vehicles and recovered the body.[26] On 22 October 2009, a 3rd Battalion helicopter crashed into the USNS Arctic during a joint training exercise involving fast roping about 20 miles off Fort Story, Virginia. The crash killed a soldier, Sergeant First Class James R. Stright, 29, and injured eight others, three seriously.[27][28]

In May 2011, the Night Stalkers provided insertion and cover for the raid on Osama bin Laden's compound.[29]

On 28 May 2012, Operation Jubilee took place: Blackhawks from the 160th SOAR flew in a teams from the British 22nd SAS Regiment and DEVGRU into Badakhshan Province, Afghanistan so they could rescue a British aid worker, a Kenyan NGO worker and 2 Afghans who were taken hostage by Bandits in the province. The rescue was a success.[30]

On 15 January 2014, a MH-60M Black Hawk of the 160th performed a hard landing at Hunter Army Airfield in Georgia. One soldier, CPT Clayton Carpenter of NY, was killed with another two injured.[31][32] On 4 July 2014, during Operation Inherent Resolve, the Night Stalkers inserted Delta Force operators into Syria to rescue James Foley and other US hostages. One American was wounded, no hostages were found, but a substantial number of terrorists were killed. CENTCOM mistakenly posted a video on the internet of a flight of four MH-60Ms of the 160th SOAR conducting a mid-air refueling over Iraq in October 2014, the video has hastily taken down. On November 26 2014, MH-60s flown by Nightstalkers took part in the first raid in the 2014 hostage rescue operations in Yemen.[33]

The Night Stalkers continue to be deployed to Afghanistan as part of NATOs Resolute Support Mission after Operation Enduring Freedom-Afghanistan ended in late 2014 and was replaced with Operation Freedom's Sentinel. Throughout that night of 5 December 2015, a group of Rangers engaged in a firefight with enemy troops near the Afghan-Pakistan border; after about 5 a.m. their commander called for an extraction after they learned of a larger enemy group approaching. A helicopter from the 160th SOAR arrived and began and received heavy fire from the enemy, an AH-64 Apache helicopter from the 1st Battalion 101st Aviation Regiment escorting the helicopter, put their Apache directly between the U.S. troops, the helicopter and the enemy forces to draw the fire. As a result, the extraction was a success.[34]

List of operations[edit]

A unit helicopter which crashed during a training operation is covered by a red tarp (center left) on Arctic after the accident.
Operation Country Year
Operation Urgent Fury  Grenada
1983
Operation Prime Chance Persian Gulf
1987–1988
Operation Mount Hope III
(recovery of Mi-24 Hind helicopter)
 Chad
1988
Operation Just Cause  Panama
1989
Operation Desert Shield  Iraq
1990
Operation Desert Storm  Iraq
1991
Operation Restore Hope  Somalia
1993
Operation Gothic Serpent
(operation that led to the Battle of Mogadishu)
 Somalia
1993
Operation Enduring Freedom  Afghanistan/ Pakistan
2001–Present
Operation Iraqi Freedom  Iraq
2003–2010
Operation New Dawn  Iraq
2010–2011
Operation Neptune Spear
(operation that led to the death of Osama bin Laden)
 Pakistan
2011
Operation Inherent Resolve SyriaSyria/ Iraq
2014–Present

Organization[edit]

Commander: COL John R. Evans[35]
Command Sergeant Major: CSM Gregory Chambers
Regimental Warrant Officer: CW5 Ivan S. Murdock

Unit Location
Headquarters Fort Campbell, KY
  • Special Operations Aviation Training Company
Fort Campbell, KY
1st Battalion
  • Headquarters and Headquarters Company
  • Light Attack Helicopters Company (AH-6M)
  • Light Assault Helicopters Company (MH-6M)
  • Medium Attack Helicopters Company (MH-60M DAP)
  • Medium Assault Helicopters Company (MH-60M)
  • Medium Assault Helicopters Company (MH-60M)
  • Aviation Maintenance Company
Fort Campbell, KY
2nd Battalion
  • Headquarters and Headquarters Company
  • Heavy Assault Helicopters Company (MH-47G)
  • Heavy Assault Helicopters Company (MH-47G)
  • Aviation Maintenance Company
Fort Campbell, KY
3rd Battalion
  • Headquarters and Headquarters Company
  • Medium Assault Helicopters Company (MH-60M)
  • Heavy Assault Helicopters Company (MH-47G)
  • Heavy Assault Helicopters Company (MH-47G)
  • Aviation Maintenance Company
Hunter Army Airfield, GA
4th Battalion
  • Headquarters and Headquarters Company
  • Medium Assault Helicopters Company (MH-60M)
  • Heavy Assault Helicopters Company (MH-47G)
  • Heavy Assault Helicopters Company (MH-47G)
  • Aviation Maintenance Company
Joint Base Lewis-McChord, WA

In popular culture[edit]

  • The 160th features prominently in the 2001 film, Black Hawk Down.
  • Andrew Herzberg from the movie "Precious Cargo." Was a former Night Stalker. In one of the scenes he says "Night Stalkers Never quit".
  • In the movie and book Lone Survivor the pilots from the mission were 160th SOAR "Night Stalkers".
  • The 160th figures prominently in M. L. Buchman's Night Stalkers novel series and related short stories with minor roles in the Firehawks series.[36]
  • In the 2017 novel A Dog Called Hope, Jason Morgan talks about his time with the 160th and his life after being injured during an operation in Central America.

See also[edit]

Comparable U.S. units[edit]

Comparable international units[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ United States Army Special Operations Command, Official Website, last accessed 1 February 2014
  2. ^ Naylor, Sean. Relentless Strike. Chapter 4. 
  3. ^ "160th SOAR(A) Green Platoon Train-up program". 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment. United States Army. Archived from the original on 31 May 2008. Retrieved 21 November 2008. 
  4. ^ Template:Cite http://www.military.com/daily-news/2013/04/18/us-military-to-open-6200-new-jobs-to-women.html
  5. ^ Making Do For Special Ops, aviationweek.com, 6 September 2011
  6. ^ Neville, Leigh, Special Forces in the War on Terror (General Military), Osprey Publishing, 2015 ISBN 978-1472807908, p.25,p.29,p.31
  7. ^ Neville, Leigh, Special Forces in the War on Terror (General Military), Osprey Publishing, 2015 ISBN 978-1472807908, p.29, p.32
  8. ^ "Task Force Dagger - Operation Enduring Freedom". Retrieved 13 January 2012.  page 127ff
  9. ^ Units Credited With Assault Landings[permanent dead link]
  10. ^ Gresham, John (12 September 2011). "The Campaign Plan – Special Operations Forces and Operation Enduring Freedom". Retrieved 11 September 2015. 
  11. ^ Neville, Leigh, Special Forces in the War on Terror (General Military), Osprey Publishing, 2015 ISBN 978-1472807908, p.42
  12. ^ Fury, Dalton. Kill Bin Laden. St Martin's, 2008. Print.
  13. ^ "'No survivors' in U.S. chopper crash". CNN. 24 February 2002. Retrieved 24 December 2016. 
  14. ^ "Operation Enduring Freedom casualties". iCasualties. 24 December 2016. Archived from the original on 3 December 2011. Retrieved 24 December 2016. 
  15. ^ "Sgt Thomas Ferrell Allison (1979 - 2002) - Find A Grave Memorial". findagrave.com. 
  16. ^ Neville, Leigh, Special Forces in the War on Terror (General Military), Osprey Publishing, 2015 ISBN 978-1472807908, p.29, p.50, p.58-59, p.64-65, p.185
  17. ^ Neville, Leigh, Special Forces in the War on Terror (General Military), Osprey Publishing, 2015 ISBN 978-1472807908,p.90, p.97, p.130-134
  18. ^ Neville, Leigh, Special Forces in the War on Terror (General Military), Osprey Publishing, 2015 ISBN 978-1472807908,p.195-197
  19. ^ Urban, Mark, Task Force Black: The Explosive True Story of the Secret Special Forces War in Iraq , St. Martin's Griffin, 2012 ISBN 978-1250006967, p.232-233
  20. ^ Urban, Mark, Task Force Black: The Explosive True Story of the Secret Special Forces War in Iraq , St. Martin's Griffin, 2012 ISBN 978-1250006967, p.154-156
  21. ^ Neville, Leigh, Special Forces in the War on Terror (General Military), Osprey Publishing, 2015 ISBN 978-1472807908,p.215
  22. ^ Neville, Leigh, Special Forces in the War on Terror (General Military), Osprey Publishing, 2015 ISBN 978-1472807908,p.236-237
  23. ^ "160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment (SOAR)". shadowspear.com. 15 January 2009. Retrieved 18 January 2017. 
  24. ^ "Special ops aviation company deactivated". Army Times. Army Times Publishing Company. 4 May 2008. Retrieved 21 November 2008. 
  25. ^ "PRESS RELEASE: Four Special Operations Aviation Soldiers die in helicopter crash in Colorado". USASOC News Service. Archived from the original on 3 September 2009. Retrieved 22 August 2009. 
  26. ^ Neville, Leigh, Special Forces in the War on Terror (General Military), Osprey Publishing, 2015 ISBN 978-1472807908,p.243,p.282-284
  27. ^ King, Lauren, "One Killed, Several Injured In Copter Crash On Navy Ship", Norfolk Virginian-Pilot, 23 October 2009.
  28. ^ Clayton, Cindy, and Lauren King, "Army, Navy Investigating Deadly Copter Crash On Ship", Norfolk Virginian-Pilot, 24 October 2009.
  29. ^ "Stealth chopper secrets may have been exposed". thestar.com. 6 May 2011. 
  30. ^ Neville, Leigh, Special Forces in the War on Terror (General Military), Osprey Publishing, 2015 ISBN 978-1472807908,p.266
  31. ^ "PRESS RELEASE: Special Operations Aviation Soldier dies in helicopter training accident". U.S. Army. 2014-03-04. 
  32. ^ "One killed in US 'Night Stalkers' hard landing". BBC News. 
  33. ^ Neville, Leigh, Special Forces in the War on Terror (General Military), Osprey Publishing, 2015 ISBN 978-1472807908,p.302, p.307, p.310
  34. ^ "2 Fort Campbell soldiers receive Distinguished Flying Cross". army times. 2 June 2016. 
  35. ^ Maj. MIKE BURNS, For The Eagle Post (2012-08-01). "Evans assumes command of 160th SOAR – The Eagle Post : News". Theeaglepost.us. Retrieved 2013-07-10. 
  36. ^ M. L. Buchman. "M. L. BUCHMAN". M. L. BUCHMAN. 

External links[edit]

 This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Army Center of Military History document "160th Aviation Regiment (Night Stalkers) Lineage and Honors".