1610 in science
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- January 7 – Galileo Galilei first observes the four large Galilean moons of Jupiter: Ganymede, Callisto, Europa and Io, although he is unable to distinguish the latter two until the following night. In the same year he publishes his first observations by telescope in a short treatise entitled Sidereus Nuncius ("Sidereal Messenger").
- December – English scientist Thomas Harriot becomes one of the first to view sunspots through a telescope
- The Orion Nebula is discovered by Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc.
- Diphtheria epidemic in Naples, during which Marco Aurelio Severino performs successful tracheotomies.
- Jean Beguin publishes Tyrocinium Chymicum, the first book of chemistry lectures.
- Tinsel is invented by a German silversmith, who uses real silver for the metal strands.
- Bagels are created in Krakow, Poland and given as gifts to women after childbirth.
- March 1 – John Pell, English mathematician (died 1685)
- Maria Cunitz, Silesian astronomer (died 1664)
- Marie Meurdrac, French chemist and alchemist (died 1680)
- Abul Qasim ibn Mohammed al-Ghassani, Moroccan physician (born 1548)
- Nikola Vitov Gučetić, Ragusan polymath (born 1549)
- Peter Lowe, Scottish surgeon (born c. 1550)
- Paarangot Jyeshtadevan Namboodiri, Keralan mathematician and astronomer (born c. 1500)
- December 31 – Ludolph van Ceulen, German mathematician (born 1540)
- "Thomas Harriot (1560–1621)". The Galileo Project. 1995. Retrieved 2012-07-04.
- Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. pp. 243–248. ISBN 0-304-35730-8.
- Armytage, W.H.G. (1960). "Giambattista della Porta and the Segreti" (PDF). British Medical Journal. 1 (5179): 1129–30. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.5179.1129. PMC 1966956. Retrieved 2011-10-17.