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1627 (MDCXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (dominical letter C) of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Monday (dominical letter G) of the Julian calendar, the 1627th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 627th year of the 2nd millennium, the 27th year of the 17th century, and the 8th year of the 1620s decade. As of the start of 1627, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
- January – The Dutch ship 't Gulden Zeepaert, skippered by François Thijssen, makes the first recorded sighting of the coast of South Australia.
- February 17 – England lands the first European settlers on Barbados.
- March 3 – After the First Manchu invasion of Korea, the Joseon dynasty of Korea becomes a tributary state of the Manchus, but still pays respects to the Ming dynasty of China. After rejecting a Manchu alteration to the original diplomatic terms in 1636, the Manchus invade again in 1637.
- June 20 – Hinchingbrooke House is sold by Oliver Cromwell to Sidney Montagu.
- July 4–July 19 – Turkish Abductions: Barbary pirates raid Iceland.
- July 20–August 19 – Eighty Years' War: Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange, lays siege to Grol, the last Spanish stronghold in the eastern Netherlands, and captures it after a 1-month siege.
- July 22 – The English, under the Duke of Buckingham, invade Ré Island in support of the Huguenots in La Rochelle. The invasion does not go well.
- July 27 – An earthquake destroys the cities of San Severo and Torremaggiore in southern Italy.
- September – The Siege of La Rochelle begins.
- November 20 – Thirty Years' War: Bogislaw XIV, Duke of Pomerania, signs the Capitulation of Franzburg, in which Pomerania is forced to pay for the Imperial army that Wallenstein sent to occupy it. Nonetheless, despite the treaty, Pomerania is devastated by the Imperial troops.
- November 21 – Archduke Ferdinand III of Austria, heir apparent of the Habsburg Monarchy and a future Holy Roman Emperor, already King of Hungary ascends to be king of the religiously troubled Bohemia where his (still living) father's repression of Protestantism has triggered the ongoing Thirty Years' War in 1618.
- November 28 – Polish-Swedish War: A Polish-Lithuanian fleet defeats a Swedish fleet in the Battle of Oliwa.
- July 1 – Anna Maria of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Consort of Augustus, Duke of Saxe-Weissenfels (d. 1669)
- July 3 – Juan Ortega y Montañés, Roman Catholic bishop, colonial administrator in Guatemala and New Spain (d. 1708)
- July 18 – Henry Howard, 5th Earl of Suffolk, youngest son of Theophilus Howard (d. 1709)
- July 20 – Thomas Wynne, personal physician of William Penn (d. 1691)
- July 28 – John Francis Desideratus, Prince of Nassau-Siegen (1652–1699) (d. 1699)
- August 1 – Princess Louise of Savoy, Hereditary Princess of Baden-Baden (d. 1689)
- August 2 – Samuel Dirksz van Hoogstraten, Dutch painter of the Golden Age (d. 1678)
- August 8
- August 21
- August 26 – Philipp Jakob Sachs, German physician (d. 1672)
- August 30
- September 11 – John Ernest II, Duke of Saxe-Weimar (1662–1683) (d. 1683)
- September 12 – Humbertus Guilielmus de Precipiano, Roman Catholic archbishop (d. 1711)
- September 27 – Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet, French bishop and theologian (d. 1704)
- October 1 – Galeazzo Marescotti, Italian cardinal (d. 1726)
- October 3 – William Crispin, one of five Commissioners appointed by William Penn for settling Pennsylvania (d. 1681)
- October 4
- November 5 – Herman Egon, Prince of Fürstenberg, High Chamberlain of the Elector of Bavaria (d. 1674)
- November 12 – Diego Luis de San Vitores, Spanish Jesuit missionary to Guam (d. 1672)
- November 14 – Marie Jonas de la Motte, Dutch prostitute (d. 1683)
- November 16 – Erasmus Finx, German polymath (d. 1694)
- November 17 – John George II, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau (1660–1693) (d. 1693)
- November 20
- November 24 – Theophil Großgebauer, German theologian active (d. 1661)
- November 27 – Isaac Eastey, Colonist (d. 1712)
- November 29 – John Ray, English biologist (d. 1705)
- December 3 – St John Brodrick, Irish Member of Parliament (d. 1711)
- December 7 – Countess Louise Henriette of Nassau, Electress Consort of Brandenburg (1646–1667) (d. 1667)
- December 24 – Daniel Pawłowski, Polish writer (d. 1673)
- December 28 – Alessandro Rosi, Italian artist (d. 1697)
- December 10 – Jean Baptiste de Champaigne, painter (d. 1681)
- January 27 – Princess Cecilia of Sweden (b. 1540)
- February 22 – Olivier van Noort, Dutch navigator (b. 1558)
- March 6 – Krzysztof Zbaraski, Polish statesman (b. 1580)
- March 27 – Sir John Suckling, English politician (b. 1569)
- April 19 – Sir John Beaumont, English poet (b. 1583)
- May 2 – Lodovico Grossi da Viadana, Italian composer (b. 1560)
- May 19 – Katharina Henot, German General Postmaster and alleged witch (b. 1570)
- May 24 – Luis de Góngora, Spanish poet (b. 1561)
- June 27 – Sir John Hayward, English historian (b. c. 1560)
- July 4 (bur.) – Thomas Middleton, English playwright (b. 1580)
- July 17 – Pedro Álvarez de Toledo, 5th Marquis of Villafranca, Spanish noble and politician (b. 1546)
- August 21 – Jacques Mauduit, French composer (b. 1557)
- August 27 – Francesco Maria del Monte, Italian Catholic cardinal (b. 1549)
- September 20 – Jan Gruter, Dutch scholar (b. 1560)
- October 28 – Jahangir, Mughal Emperor of India (b. 1569)
- December – Madame Ke, the influential nanny of the Tianqi Emperor of China
- date unknown