1645 Luzon earthquake

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1645 Luzon earthquake
1645 Luzon earthquake is located in Philippines
1645 Luzon earthquake
Date November 30, 1645 (1645-11-30)
Origin time 8:00 PM
Magnitude 7.5 Ms
Areas affected Philippines, Central Luzon
Total damage Unknown
Casualties 600 (?)

The 1645 Luzon earthquake was one of the most destructive earthquakes to hit the Philippines. It occurred on November 30 at about 08:00 PM local time on Luzon Island in the northern part of the country. The island was struck by a 7.5 Ms (surface wave magnitude) tremor produced by the San Manuel and Gabaldon Faults (Nueva Ecija) in the central section of the island.[1]

Aftershocks continued a few days after the quake then on December 4, 1645, at 11:00 pm, a strong earthquake allegedly equal or stronger than the November 30 shaking hit the same area, causing further death and destruction.[2]:226


Its meizoseismal area was not less than 490 kilometres (300 mi) from north to south, that is, from the southern coast of Batangas and Quezon provinces to Cagayan in the northeasternmost part of the island. On the western coast, it seems to have been of less intensity; at least the chronicles of the time are silent about its effects in these parts. They dealt very much with the destruction caused in Manila and neighboring provinces to the south, east, and north, the tremendous effects produced in the eastern part of the Central Cordillera Mountains, and as far north as in Lal-Lo in the Cagayan Valley where large fissures opened in the earth and many large landslides occurred in the hills.[3][4]


In Manila, the earthquake occurred during the feast of Saint Andrew, the patron saint of the city. The damage was entirely severe; almost all the city lay in ruins.[4] It ruined the Manila Cathedral and other churches in the capital, public buildings and residential villas.[5][6] An estimated 600 Spanish people were killed, and about 3,000 Spanish were injured. Only the Spaniards, who perished during the earthquake, were counted by the ruling Spanish government, while other persons were disregarded.[7][8]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Tsutsumi, H., Daligdig, J.A., Goto, H., Tungol, N.M., Kondo, H., Nakata, T., Okuno, M., and Sugito, N. (2006). Timing of surface-rupturing earthquakes on the Philippine fault zone in central Luzon Island, Philippines. EOS Transactions, American Geophysical Union 87, Supplement.
  2. ^
  3. ^ Maso, Saderra M (1913). ("Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vols. 3 & 4 - Seismic Disturbances in Manila". Seismological Society of America.
  4. ^ a b Maso, Saderra M. (1904). "Volcano and Seismic Centers of the Philippine Archipelago". pp.73-75. Department of Commerce and Labor.
  5. ^ "The Third Cathedral". Manila Metropolitan Cathedral-Basilica Philippines. Retrieved on 2011-10-14.
  6. ^ Kneeland, Samuel (1888). "Volcano and Earthquakes". D. Lothrop Company, Boston.
  7. ^ Bautista, Maria Leonila; Bartolome Bautista (April–June 2004). "The Philippine historical earthquake catalog: its development, current state and future directions". Annals of Geophysics. 47 (2 & 3). Retrieved 12 October 2010. 
  8. ^ Wong, Ivan. "Evaluating Seismic Hazards in Metro Manila, Philippines" (PDF). Timothy Dawson, Mark Dober. Oakland: URS Corp. Retrieved 12 October 2010. 

Coordinates: 16°44′29″N 121°45′02″E / 16.741428°N 121.750488°E / 16.741428; 121.750488