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|165 by topic|
|Ab urbe condita||918|
|Balinese saka calendar||86–87|
|Chinese calendar||甲辰年 (Wood Dragon)|
2861 or 2801
— to —
乙巳年 (Wood Snake)
2862 or 2802
|Coptic calendar||−119 – −118|
|- Vikram Samvat||221–222|
|- Shaka Samvat||86–87|
|- Kali Yuga||3265–3266|
|Iranian calendar||457 BP – 456 BP|
|Islamic calendar||471 BH – 470 BH|
|Minguo calendar||1747 before ROC|
|Seleucid era||476/477 AG|
|Thai solar calendar||707–708|
291 or −90 or −862
— to —
292 or −89 or −861
Year 165 (CLXV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Orfitus and Pudens (or, less frequently, year 918 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 165 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
- A Roman military operation under Avidius Cassius is successful against Parthia, capturing Artaxata, Seleucia on the Tigris, and Ctesiphon. The Parthians sue for peace.
- A pandemic known as the Antonine Plague breaks out in Rome after the Roman army returns from Parthia. The plague significantly depopulates the Roman Empire and China.
- Legio II Italica is levied by emperor Marcus Aurelius.
- Dura-Europos is taken by the Romans.
- The Romans establish a garrison at Doura Europos on the Euphrates, a control point for the commercial route to the Persian Gulf.
- Avidius Cassius takes Nisibis and conquers the north of Mesopotamia.
- Marcus Aurelius creates four legal districts (iuridici) in Italy (5 if Rome is included).
- The philosopher Justin of Nablus is executed in Rome as a Christian.
- Discourse to the Greek (Oratio ad Graecos), by the Syrian Tatian, is the first treatise on the evils of paganism in Christian literature.
- Macrinus, Roman emperor (approximate date) (d. 218)
- Mi Zhu, official serving under the Han dynasty warlord Liu Bei (approximate date) (d. 221)
- Justin Martyr, early apologist for Christianity (b. AD 100)
- Claudius Ptolemaeus, Greek astronomer (approximate date) (b. c. AD 90)
- Empress Deng Mengnu, wife of Emperor Huan of Han
- Elpinice (daughter of Herodes Atticus) (b. 142)