1650s

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The 1650s decade ran from January 1, 1650, to December 31, 1659.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
Categories:
February 2, 1653: New Amsterdam is incorporated.

Events

1650


January–June[edit]

July–December[edit]

Date unknown[edit]

1651

January–June[edit]

July–December[edit]

Date unknown[edit]

1652

January–March[edit]

April 6: Jan van Riebeeck establishes Cape Town
  • January 8Michiel de Ruyter marries the widow Anna van Gelder and plans retirement, but months later becomes a vice-commodore in the First Anglo-Dutch War.
  • February 4 – At Edinburgh, the parliamentary commissioners of the Commonwealth of England proclaim the Tender of Union to be in force in Scotland, annexing the Scottish nation with the concession that Scotland would have 30 representatives in the parliament of the English Commonwealth.
  • February 12Oliver Cromwell, England's Lord Protector, announces that his Council of Scotland will regulate church affairs as part of the Terms of Incorporation of Scotland into England, and eliminates Presbyterianism as Scotland's state religion.
  • March 29 – A total solar eclipse occurs on (Black Monday, or on 8 April New Style in the Gregorian calendar).

April–June[edit]

July–December[edit]

1653

January–March[edit]

April–June[edit]

July–September[edit]

October–December[edit]

Date unknown[edit]

  • Marcello Malpighi, an Italian pioneer of microscopical anatomy becomes a doctor of medicine.
  • Stephen Bachiler, a clergyman and early advocate for the separation of church and state returns to England after having spent more than 20 years overseas in the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
  • The gardens surrounding the Taj Mahal mausoleum are completed at Agra.

1654

January–March[edit]

April–June[edit]

July–September[edit]

October –December[edit]

1655

January–March[edit]

April–June[edit]

July–September[edit]

October –December[edit]

Date unknown[edit]

1656

January–March[edit]

April–June[edit]

July–September[edit]

October–December[edit]

Undated[edit]

1657

January–March[edit]

April–June[edit]

July–September[edit]

October–December[edit]

Date unknown[edit]

1658

January–March[edit]

April–June[edit]

July–September[edit]

October–December[edit]

  • October 7 – The Netherlands enters the Dano-Swedish War to come to the rescue of Denmark, sending a 45-ship fleet from Vlie.
  • October 29 – The 45-ship fleet of the Netherlands arrives at Denmark and begins its counterattack on Sweden's army and navy with three squadrons.
  • November 6 – The Mexican Inquisition carries out the execution, by public burning, of 14 men convicted of homosexuality, while another 109 arrested are either released or given less harsh sentences.
  • November 8 (October 29 old style) – The Battle of the Sound takes place between the navies of the Dutch Republic (with 41 warships) and of Sweden (with 45) at the Øresund, a strait between Denmark and Sweden's newly-acquired territory, the former Danish island of Scania. The Dutch Republic is successful at breaking the Swedish Navy's blockade of Copenhagen, and Sweden is forced to retreat, bringing an end to the attempted conquest of Denmark.
  • November 23 – The elaborate funeral of the late Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell (who had died on September 3 and was buried at Westminster Abbey two weeks later) is carried out in London. A little more than two years later (in January 1661), Cromwell's body will be disinterred and the head severed and placed on a spike.
  • December 11Abaza Hasan Pasha, an Ottoman provincial governor who is attempting to depose the Grand Vizier, wins a battle at the Turkish city of Ilgin, defeating loyalist forces led by Murtaza Pasha. The victory is the last for the rebels. Two months later (February 16, 1659) Abaza Hasan is assassinated after being invited to peace negotiations by the loyalists.
  • December 20 – Representatives of the Russian Empire and the Swedish Empire sign the Treaty of Valiesar at the Valiesar Estate near Narva, now part of Estonia. In return for ceasing hostilities between the two empires in the Second Northern War, Russia is allowed to keep captured territories in Livonia (now part of Latvia) for a term of three years.
  • December 25 – Polish and Danish forces defeat a Swedish Army in the Battle of Kolding in Denmark.
  • December 30 – The Siege of Toruń ends almost six months after it started, with Poland recapturing the city from Sweden.

Date unknown[edit]

  • Portuguese traders are expelled from Ceylon by Dutch invaders.
  • The Dutch in the Cape Colony start to import slaves from India and South-East Asia (later from Madagascar).

1659

January–March[edit]

April–June[edit]

  • April 22 – Under pressure from the English Army in London, which has assembled troops outside of Westminster, Richard Cromwell, Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland, dissolves the Third Protectorate Parliament, the last for the Commonwealth.[72]
  • May 6 – English Army General Hezekiah Haynes, joined by officers Charles Fleetwood, John Lambert, James Berry, Robert Lilburne, Thomas Kelsey, William Goffe and William Packer, presents the manifesto A Declaration of the Officers of the Army, advocating that Lord Protector Cromwell step down after restoring the "Rump Parliament" to administer England. Cromwell restores the parliament rule the next day and decides to step down.[73]
  • May 21 – The Kingdom of France, the Commonwealth of England and the Dutch Republic sign the Concert of The Hague.
  • May 25Richard Cromwell resigns as English Lord Protector, submitting "a letter that may have been dictated to him."[74] In the letter, signed by Cromwell in front of Sir Gilbert Pickering and Lord Chief-Justice St. John, "I have perused the Resolve and Declaration, which you were pleased to deliver to me the other Night," and after listing his personal debts to be paid in return for stepping down, "As to that Part of the Resolve, whereby the Committee are to inform themselves, How far I do acquiesce in the Government of this Commonwealth, as it is declared by this Parliament; I trust, my past Carriage hitherto hath manifested my Acquiescence in the Will and Disposition of God; and that I love and value the Peace of this Commonwealth much above my own Concernments: And I desire, that by this, a Measure of my future Deportment may be taken; which, thro' the Assistance of God, shall be such as shall bear the same Witness; having, I hope, in some degree, learned rather to reverence and submit to the Hand of God, than to be unquiet under it: And, as to the late Providences that have fallen out amongst us, however, in respect of the particular Engagements that lay upon me, I could not be active in making a Change in the Government of these Nations, yet through the Goodness of God, I can freely acquiesce in it, being made; and do hold myself obliged."[75] The executive government is replaced by the restored Council of State, dominated by Generals John Lambert, Charles Fleetwood, and John Desborough. The Council of State is dismissed by the Rump Parliament on October 13 and replaced by the "Committee of Safety" on October 25.[76]
  • May 31 – The Netherlands, England, and France sign the Treaty of The Hague.
  • June 10Dara Shikoh, at one time the heir apparent for the Mughal Empire, is betrayed by an Afghan chieftain, Junaid Khan Barozai, who had initially given him refuge from pursuit from the new emperor, Aurangzeb. Turned over to Aurangzeb's men, Dara Shikoh is killed on August 30.
  • June 29 – In the Battle of Konotop, fought near the Ukrainian city of Konotop during the Russo-Polish War, Polish Cossack hetman Ivan Vyhovsky and his allies defeat the armies of the Tsardom of Russia, led by Aleksey Trubetskoy.

July–September[edit]

October–December[edit]

Date unknown[edit]

  • First British colonists arrive on Saint Helena.
  • Spanish Infanta Maria Theresa brings cocoa to Paris.
  • Diego Velázquez's portrait of Infanta Maria Theresa is first exhibited.
  • Thomas Hobbes publishes De Homine.
  • Parisian police raid a monastery, sending monks to prison for eating meat and drinking wine during Lent.
  • Drought occurs in India.[79]
  • Peter Swink, the first known non-white settler to own land in Massachusetts, and first known African to live in Springfield, Massachusetts, arrives. He holds a seat in the town meetings.

Births[edit]

1650

1651

1652

1653

1654

1655

1656

1657

1658

1659

Deaths[edit]

1650

1651

1652

1653

1654

1655

1656

1657

1658

1659

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Arnold Houbraken mentioned erroneously 1656 as his birth in the book De groote schouburgh der Nederlantsche konstschilders en schilderessen, but the correct date is 1655.[101]

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