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|1659 by topic:|
|Arts and Science|
|Architecture - Art - Literature - Music - Science|
|Lists of leaders|
|State leaders – Colonial & territorial governors – Religious leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Births - Deaths|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Establishments - Disestablishments|
|Ab urbe condita||2412|
|English Regnal year||10 Cha. 2 – 11 Cha. 2
|Chinese calendar||戊戌年 (Earth Dog)
4355 or 4295
— to —
己亥年 (Earth Pig)
4356 or 4296
|- Vikram Samvat||1715–1716|
|- Shaka Samvat||1580–1581|
|- Kali Yuga||4759–4760|
|Japanese calendar||Manji 2
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 10 days|
|Minguo calendar||253 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2201–2202|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1659.|
1659 (MDCLIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (dominical letter E) of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Saturday (dominical letter B) of the Julian calendar, the 1659th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 659th year of the 2nd millennium, the 59th year of the 17th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1650s decade. As of the start of 1659, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
- January 14 – Battle of the Lines of Elvas: The Portuguese beat the Spanish in the Portuguese Restoration War.
- January 24 – Pierre Corneille's Oedipe premieres in Paris.
- February 2 – Jan van Riebeeck produces the first South African wine at the Cape of Good Hope.
- February 11 – The Assault on Copenhagen by Swedish forces is beaten back with heavy losses.
- February 16 – The first known cheque (400 pounds) is written.
- April 22 – Lord Protector Richard Cromwell dissolves the English Parliament.
- May 21 – The Kingdom of France, the Commonwealth of England and the Dutch Republic sign the Concert of The Hague.
- May 25 – Richard Cromwell resigns as English Lord Protector.
- May 31 – The Netherlands, England, and France sign the Treaty of The Hague.
- June 29 – Russo-Polish War (1654–67): Battle of Konotop – Ivan Vyhovsky, hetman of Ukraine, and his allies defeat the armies of the Tsardom of Russia led by Aleksey Trubetskoy in Ukraine.
- July 16 – Princess Henriette Catherine of Nassau marries John George II, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau, in Groningen.
- September 30 – Peter Stuyvesant of New Netherland forbids tennis playing during religious services (first mention of tennis in what will be the U.S.).
- October 12 – The English Rump Parliament dismisses John Lambert and other generals.
- October 13 – General-major John Lambert drives out the English Rump-government.
- November 7 – Treaty of the Pyrenees: King Louis XIV of France and King Philip IV of Spain agree to French acquisition of the counties of Roussillon and Upper Cerdanya (Principality of Catalonia) and most of Artois, and formally end their 24-year war.
- November 25 – Dutch forces under Michiel de Ruyter free the Danish city of Nyborg from Swedish conquest (earlier in the year).
- December 16 – General Monck demands free parliamentary election in Scotland.
- December 26 – The Long Parliament reforms occur in Westminster.
- The Spanish Infanta Maria Theresa brings cocoa to Paris.
- Diego Velázquez's portrait of Infanta Maria Theresa is first exhibited.
- Thomas Hobbes publishes De Homine.
- Parisian police raid a monastery, sending monks to prison for eating meat and drinking wine during Lent.
- Drought occurs in India.
- Christiaan Huygens writes Systema Saturnium.
- January 1 – Margaret Wemyss, 3rd Countess of Wemyss, Scottish noble (d. 1705)
- January 4 – James Pierpont, Congregationalist minister, a founder of Yale University (d. 1714)
- January 11 – Ambrose Browne, English politician (d. 1688)
- January 13 – Johann Arnold Nering, German architect (d. 1695)
- January 17
- January 18 – Damaris Cudworth Masham, English philosopher (d. 1708)
- January 21 – Adriaen van der Werff, Dutch painter (d. 1722)
- January 28 – Sir Samuel Barnardiston, 2nd Baronet, English politician (d. 1709)
- February 1 – Jacob Roggeveen, Dutch Pacific Ocean explorer (d. 1729)
- February 14 – Theodore Eustace, Count Palatine of Sulzbach (d. 1732)
- February 27 – William Sherard, English botanist (d. 1728)
- March 4 – Pierre Lepautre (1659–1744), French artist (d. 1744)
- March 6 – Salomon Franck, German lawyer, scientist, poet (d. 1725)
- March 8 – Isaac de Beausobre, French Protestant pastor (d. 1738)
- March 25 – John Asgill, Irish politician (d. 1738)
- March 26 – William Wollaston, English philosopher (d. 1724)
- April 8 – Christopher Tancred, British politician (d. 1705)
- April 14
- April 15 – Adam Ludwig Lewenhaupt, Swedish general (d. 1719)
- April 16 – Jacques le Moyne de Sainte-Hélène (d. 1690)
- April 29
- May 4 – John Dunton, English bookseller and author (d. 1733)
- June 3 – David Gregory, Scottish astronomer (d. 1708)
- June 5 – Wolfgang George Frederick von Pfalz-Neuburg, Bishop (d. 1683)
- June 7 – Henry Thompson (1659–1700), British politician (d. 1700)
- June 11 – Yamamoto Tsunetomo, Samurai (d. 1719)
- June 12 – Yamamoto Tsunetomo, Japanese samurai (d. 1719
- June 15 – Claude de Ramezay, Canadian politician (d. 1724)
- June 22 – Simon-Pierre Denys de Bonaventure, French officer and governor of Acadia (d. 1711)
- June 26 – Sir John Brownlow, 3rd Baronet, English politician (d. 1697)
- July 3 – Franz Beer (d. 1726)
- July 6 – Albert Wolfgang, Count of Hohenlohe-Langenburg (d. 1715)
- July 8 – Justus van Huysum, Dutch painter (d. 1716)
- July 14 – John Hutton (1659–1731), English politician (d. 1731)
- July 16 – Anne Wharton, English poet (d. 1685)
- July 18 – Hyacinthe Rigaud, French painter (d. 1743)
- July 22 – Noadiah Russell, one of the clergymen who founded Yale (d. 1713)
- July 28
- August 1 – Sebastiano Ricci, Italian painter (d. 1734)
- August 2 – Andrew Archer, English politician (d. 1741)
- August 17 – Robert Challe, French colonialist (d. 1721)
- August 23 – Henry Every, English pirate (d. 1696)
- September 1 – Domenico Egidio Rossi, Italian architect (d. 1715)
- September 5 – Michel Sarrazin, Canadian scientist (d. 1734)
- September 10 – Henry Purcell, English composer (d. 1695)
- September 12
- September 13 – Claud Hamilton, 4th Earl of Abercorn (d. 1691)
- September 18 – Caleb Banks, English politician (d. 1696)
- October 13 – George Verney, 12th Baron Willoughby de Broke, English Baron (d. 1728)
- October 22 – Georg Ernst Stahl, German chemist (d. 1734)
- October 28 – Nicholas Brady (poet), poet, Anglican divine (d. 1726)
- November 3 – Hui-bin Jang, Royal consort (d. 1701)
- November 10 – Albert Borgard, Danish artillery and engineer officer (d. 1751)
- November 19 – Jacques-Louis de Valon, French poet (d. 1719)
- December 2 – John Brereton, 4th Baron Brereton, Irish peer (d. 1718)
- December 12 – Francesco Galli Bibiena, Italian architect/designer (d. 1739)
- December 18 – Matthieu Petit-Didier (d. 1728)
- December 28 – François Catrou, French historian and Jesuit priest (d. 1737)
- January 16 – Charles Annibal Fabrot, French lawyer (b. 1580)
- February – Willem Drost, Dutch painter and printmaker (b. 1633)
- February 17 – Abel Servien, French diplomat (b. 1593)
- February 27 – Henry Dunster, first President of Harvard College (b. 1609)
- April 15 – Simon Dach, German poet (b. 1605)
- June 3 – Morgan Llwyd, Welsh Puritan preacher and writer (b. 1619)
- October 8 – Jean de Quen, French Jesuit missionary and historian (b. c. 1603)
- October 10 – Abel Tasman, Dutch explorer (b. 1603)
- October 31 – John Bradshaw, English judge (b. 1602)
- November 10 – Afzal Khan, commander of the Bijapur Adilshahi forces
- On display at Westminster Abbey.