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This article is about the year 1665.
|Centuries:||16th century – 17th century – 18th century|
|Decades:||1630s 1640s 1650s – 1660s – 1670s 1680s 1690s|
|Years:||1662 1663 1664 – 1665 – 1666 1667 1668|
|1665 by topic:|
|Arts and Science|
|Architecture - Art - Literature - Music - Science|
|Lists of leaders|
|Colonial governors - State leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Births - Deaths|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Establishments - Disestablishments|
|Ab urbe condita||2418|
|English Regnal year||16 Cha. 2 – 17 Cha. 2|
|Chinese calendar||甲辰年 (Wood Dragon)
4361 or 4301
— to —
乙巳年 (Wood Snake)
4362 or 4302
|- Vikram Samvat||1721–1722|
|- Shaka Samvat||1587–1588|
|- Kali Yuga||4766–4767|
|Japanese calendar||Kanbun 4
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 10 days|
|Minguo calendar||247 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2207–2208|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1665.|
- January 5 – The Journal des sçavans begins publication in France, the first scientific journal.
- March 4 – The Second Anglo-Dutch War begins.
- April 10 – The Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society begins publication, the first scientific journal in English.
- March 11 – A new legal code is approved for the Dutch and English towns of New York guaranteeing all Protestants the right to continue their religious observances unhindered.
- March 16 – Bucharest allows Jews to settle in the city in exchange for an annual tax of 16 guilders.
- April 12 – Margaret Porteous is the first person recorded to die in the Great Plague of London. This last major outbreak of Bubonic plague in the British Isles has possibly been introduced by Dutch prisoners of war. Two-thirds of Londoners leave the city, but over 68,000 die. Plague spreads to Derby.
- May 19 – Great fire of Newport, Shropshire England.
- June 12 – England installs a municipal government in New York City (the former Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam).
- June 13 (June 3 O.S.) – Second Anglo-Dutch War: English naval victory at the Battle of Lowestoft under James Stuart, Duke of York.
- June 30 – King Charles II of England issues a second charter for the Province of Carolina, which clarifies and expands the borders of the Lords Proprietors' tracts.
- July 3 – The first documented case of cyclopia is found in a horse.
- July 7 – King Charles II of England leaves London with his entourage, fleeing the Great Plague. He moves his court to Salisbury, then Exeter.
- August 2 – Second Anglo-Dutch War: Dutch naval victory at the Battle of Vågen.
- August 27 – Ye Bare & Ye Cubbe, the first play in English in the American colonies, is performed in Pungoteague, Virginia.
- September – Robert Hooke's Micrographia published in London, first applying the term 'cell' to plant tissue, which he discovered first in cork, then in living organisms, using a microscope.
- September 17 – Charles II of Spain becomes King while not yet four years old.
- September 22 – Molière's L'Amour médecin is first presented, before Louis XIV of France at the Palace of Versailles with music by Jean-Baptiste Lully.
- October 5 – The University of Kiel is founded.
- October 29 – Battle of Mbwila: Portuguese forces defeat and kill King António I of Kongo.
- November 7 – The London Gazette, the oldest surviving journal, is first published as The Oxford Gazette.
- Colonisation of Réunion begins with the French East India Company sending twenty settlers.
- Ferdinando Carlo Gonzaga is invested as Duke of Mantua.
- Joan Blaeu completes publication of his Atlas Maior (Theatrum Orbis Terrarum) in Amsterdam.
- John Bunyan publishes The End of the World, The Resurrection of the Dead and Eternal Judgment and The Holy City or the New Jerusalem.
- The English poet John Milton popularizes the Chinese sailing carriage in a famous poem; this peculiar Chinese invention was first written of in the West by Abraham Ortelius in his atlas of 1584.
- February 6 – Anne, Queen of Great Britain (d. 1714)
- February 12 – Rudolf Jakob Camerarius, German botanist and physician (d. 1721)
- March 4 – Philip Christoph von Königsmarck, Swedish soldier (d. 1694)
- March 17 – Élisabeth Jacquet de La Guerre, French harpsichordist and composer (d. 1729)
- April 19 – Jacques Lelong, French bibliographer (d. 1721)
- April 29 – James Butler, 2nd Duke of Ormonde, Irish statesman and soldier (d. 1745)
- June 4 – Zacharie Robutel de La Noue, Canadian soldier (d. 1733)
- July 2 – Samuel Penhallow, English-born American colonist and historian (d. 1726)
- August 21 – Giacomo F. Maraldi, French-Italian astronomer (d. 1729)
- August 27 – John Hervey, 1st Earl of Bristol, English politician (d. 1751)
- December 25 – Lady Grizel Baillie, Scottish songwriter (d. 1746)
- December 28 – George FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Northumberland, English general (d. 1716)
- January 12 – Pierre de Fermat, French mathematician (b. 1601)
- January 31 – Johannes Clauberg, German theologian and philosopher (b. 1622)
- June 13 – Egbert Bartholomeusz Kortenaer, Dutch admiral (b. 1604)
- June 25 – Archduke Sigismund Francis of Austria, regent of Tyrol and Further Austria (b. 1630)
- July 11 – Kenelm Digby, English privateer (b. 1603)
- July 18 – Stefan Czarniecki, Polish general (b. 1599)
- August 28 – Elisabetta Sirani, Italian painter (b. 1638)
- September 12 – Jean Bolland, Flemish Jesuit writer (b. 1596)
- September 17 – King Philip IV of Spain (b. 1605)
- September 25 – Maria Anna of Austria, Electress of Bavaria (b. 1610)
- November 17 – John Earle (bishop), English bishop (b. 1601)
- November 19 – Nicolas Poussin, French painter (b. 1594)
- December 2 – Catherine de Vivonne, marquise de Rambouillet, French socialite (b. 1588)
- December 10 – Tarquinio Merula, Italian composer (b. c. 1594)