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|Centuries:||16th century – 17th century – 18th century|
|Decades:||1640s 1650s 1660s – 1670s – 1680s 1690s 1700s|
|Years:||1667 1668 1669 – 1670 – 1671 1672 1673|
|1670 by topic:|
|Arts and Science|
|Architecture - Art - Literature - Music - Science|
|Lists of leaders|
|Colonial governors - State leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Births - Deaths|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Establishments - Disestablishments|
|Ab urbe condita||2423|
|English Regnal year||21 Cha. 2 – 22 Cha. 2|
|Chinese calendar||己酉年 (Earth Rooster)
4366 or 4306
— to —
庚戌年 (Metal Dog)
4367 or 4307
|- Vikram Samvat||1726–1727|
|- Shaka Samvat||1591–1592|
|- Kali Yuga||4770–4771|
|Japanese calendar||Kanbun 9
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 10 days|
|Minguo calendar||242 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2212–2213|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1670.|
1670 (MDCLXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (dominical letter E) of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Saturday (dominical letter B) of the Julian calendar, the 1670th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 670th year of the 2nd millennium, the 70th year of the 17th century, and the 1st year of the 1670s decade. As of the start of 1670, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1918.
- January 21 – French-born highwayman Claude Duval is executed at Tyburn in London.
- April 29 – Pope Clement X succeeds Pope Clement IX as the 239th pope.
- May 2 – The Hudson's Bay Company is founded in England to operate in Canada.
- May 26 – At Dover in England, Charles II of England and Louis XIV of France sign the Secret Treaty of Dover ending hostilities between their kingdoms. Louis will give Charles 200,000 pounds annually. In return Charles will relax the laws against Catholics, gradually re-Catholicize England, support French policy against the Dutch and convert to Catholicism himself.
- June 15 – The first stone of Fort Ricasoli is laid down in Malta.
- July 18 (July 8, O.S.) – Spain recognises Jamaica and the Cayman Islands as English possessions by the Treaty of Madrid.
- August – Spanish frigates attack Charleston, South Carolina.
- September 1–5 – William Penn and William Mead are tried in London after a Quaker sermon.
- November 24 – Louis XIV of France authorises work to commence on the construction of Les Invalides a veterans hospital in Paris, France.
- December 15 – Welsh privateer in English service Henry Morgan recaptures Santa Catalina Island, Colombia.
- December 27 – Henry Morgan captures Fort San Lorenzo on Panama's Caribbean coast.
- Stenka Razin begins the rebellion of Cossacks in the Ukraine.
- Niani, capital of the Mali Empire, is sacked by the Bambara people of the emerging Segou Empire.
- First French settlers arrive on the Petite Côte of modern-day Senegal.
- January 24 – William Congreve, English playwright (d. 1729)
- February 25 – Maria Margarethe Kirch, German astronomer (d. 1720)
- February 28 – Benjamin Wadsworth, American President of Harvard University (d. 1737)
- 17 April – Dorothea von Velen, mistress of Johann Wilhelm, Elector Palatine, and a reformer of women's rights (d. 1732)
- May 8 – Charles Beauclerk, 1st Duke of St Albans, English soldier (d. 1726)
- May 12 – King Frederick Augustus I of Poland (d. 1733)
- July 18 – Giovanni Bononcini, Italian composer (d. 1747)
- July 19 – Richard Leveridge, English bass and composer (d. 1758)
- August 21 – James FitzJames, 1st Duke of Berwick, French military commander (d. 1734)
- November 30 – John Toland, Irish philosopher (d. 1722)
- December 4 – John Aislabie, English politician and director of the South Sea Company (d. 1742)
- date unknown – Sultan Abdullah Khan Abdali, Persian Governor of Herat, Shah of Herat (d. 1721)
- January 3 – George Monck, 1st Duke of Albemarle, English soldier (b. 1608)
- January 25 – Nicholas II, Duke of Lorraine (b. 1612)
- February 19 – King Frederick III of Denmark (b. 1609)
- March 10 – Johann Glauber, German chemist (b. 1604)
- March 15 – John Davenport, Connecticut pioneer (b. 1597)
- April – Ahom King Swargadeo Chakradhwaj Singha or Supangmung of Assam, India
- April 5 – Leonora Baroni, Italian singer (b. 1611)
- May 21 – Niccolò Zucchi, Italian astronomer and physicist (b. 1586)
- May 23 – Ferdinando II de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany (b. 1610)
- June 30 – Princess Henrietta Anne Stuart of Scotland, England, and Ireland (b. 1644)
- October 27 – Vavasor Powell, Welsh non-conformist leader (b. 1617)
- November 15 – Comenius, Czech writer (b. 1592)