1681 Steinmetz

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1681 Steinmetz
Discovery [1]
Discovered byM. Laugier
Discovery siteNice Obs.
Discovery date23 November 1948
MPC designation(1681) Steinmetz
Named after
Julius Steinmetz
(amateur astronomer)[2]
1948 WE · 1926 YA
1936 BE · 1939 VC
1945 ED · 1957 YH
1958 AE · A914 DB
main-belt · (middle)[3]
Orbital characteristics[1]
Epoch 4 September 2017 (JD 2458000.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc103.18 yr (37,688 days)
Aphelion3.2486 AU
Perihelion2.1443 AU
2.6965 AU
4.43 yr (1,617 days)
0° 13m 21.36s / day
Physical characteristics
Dimensions14.58±0.75 km[4]
16.159±0.342 km[5]
20.49 km (calculated)[3]
8.99917±0.00007 h[6]
0.10 (assumed)[3]
Tholen = S[1] · S[3]
B–V = 0.878[1]
U–B = 0.447[1]
11.37±0.33[7] · 11.56[1][3][4][5]

1681 Steinmetz, provisional designation 1948 WE, is a stony asteroid from the central region of the asteroid belt, approximately 16 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 23 November 1948, by French astronomer Marguerite Laugier at Nice Observatory in south-eastern France.[8] It was named after German amateur astronomer Julius Steinmetz.[2]

Orbit and classification[edit]

Steinmetz orbits the Sun in the central main-belt at a distance of 2.1–3.2 AU once every 4 years and 5 months (1,617 days). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.20 and an inclination of 7° with respect to the ecliptic.[1] Steinmetz was first identified as A914 DB at Heidelberg Observatory in 1914, extending the body's observation arc by 34 years prior to its official discovery observation at Nice.[8]

Physical characteristics[edit]

This asteroid is characterized as a common S-type asteroid in the Tholen classification.[1]

Rotation period[edit]

In December 2006, Italian amateur astronomer Silvano Casulli obtained a rotational lightcurve of Steinmetz from photometric observations. It gave a well-defined rotation period of 8.99917 hours with a brightness variation of 0.42 magnitude (U=3).[6]

Diameter and albedo[edit]

According to the surveys carried out by the Japanese Akari satellite and NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer with its subsequent NEOWISE mission, Steinmetz measures 14.58 and 16.16 kilometers in diameter, and its surface has an albedo of 0.204 and 0.161, respectively.[4][5] The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link assumes an albedo of 0.10 and calculates a diameter of 20.49 kilometers based on an absolute magnitude of 11.56.[3]


According to a proposal by Otto Kippes, who verified the discovery, this minor planet was named after Julius Steinmetz (1893–1965), a German amateur astronomer, orbit computer, and pastor from Gerolfingen in Bavaria.[2] The official naming citation was published by the Minor Planet Center on 1 October 1980 (M.P.C. 5523).[9]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 1681 Steinmetz (1948 WE)" (2017-05-06 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 6 June 2017.
  2. ^ a b c Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). "(1681) Steinmetz". Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (1681) Steinmetz. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 134. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-29925-7_1682. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3.
  3. ^ a b c d e f "LCDB Data for (1681) Steinmetz". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 23 December 2016.
  4. ^ a b c d Usui, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Müller, Thomas G.; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ootsubo, Takafumi; et al. (October 2011). "Asteroid Catalog Using Akari: AKARI/IRC Mid-Infrared Asteroid Survey". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 63 (5): 1117–1138. Bibcode:2011PASJ...63.1117U. doi:10.1093/pasj/63.5.1117. Retrieved 17 October 2019. (online, AcuA catalog p. 153)
  5. ^ a b c d Masiero, Joseph R.; Mainzer, A. K.; Grav, T.; Bauer, J. M.; Cutri, R. M.; Nugent, C.; et al. (November 2012). "Preliminary Analysis of WISE/NEOWISE 3-Band Cryogenic and Post-cryogenic Observations of Main Belt Asteroids". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 759 (1): 5. arXiv:1209.5794. Bibcode:2012ApJ...759L...8M. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/759/1/L8. Retrieved 23 December 2016.
  6. ^ a b Behrend, Raoul. "Asteroids and comets rotation curves – (1681) Steinmetz". Geneva Observatory. Retrieved 23 December 2016.
  7. ^ Veres, Peter; Jedicke, Robert; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Denneau, Larry; Granvik, Mikael; Bolin, Bryce; et al. (November 2015). "Absolute magnitudes and slope parameters for 250,000 asteroids observed by Pan-STARRS PS1 - Preliminary results". Icarus. 261: 34–47. arXiv:1506.00762. Bibcode:2015Icar..261...34V. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2015.08.007. Retrieved 23 December 2016.
  8. ^ a b "1681 Steinmetz (1948 WE)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 23 December 2016.
  9. ^ "MPC/MPO/MPS Archive". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 23 December 2016.

External links[edit]