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|Centuries:||16th century – 17th century – 18th century|
|Decades:||1650s 1660s 1670s – 1680s – 1690s 1700s 1710s|
|Years:||1683 1684 1685 – 1686 – 1687 1688 1689|
|1686 by topic:|
|Arts and Science|
|Architecture - Art - Literature - Music - Science|
|Lists of leaders|
|Colonial governors - State leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Births - Deaths|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Establishments - Disestablishments|
|Ab urbe condita||2439|
|English Regnal year||1 Ja. 2 – 2 Ja. 2|
|Chinese calendar||乙丑年 (Wood Ox)
4382 or 4322
— to —
丙寅年 (Fire Tiger)
4383 or 4323
|- Vikram Samvat||1742–1743|
|- Shaka Samvat||1608–1609|
|- Kali Yuga||4787–4788|
|Japanese calendar||Jōkyō 3
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 10 days|
|Minguo calendar||226 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2228–2229|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1686.|
1686 (MDCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (dominical letter F) of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Friday (dominical letter C) of the Julian calendar, the 1686th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 686th year of the 2nd millennium, the 86th year of the 17th century, and the 7th year of the 1680s decade. Note that the Julian day for 1686 is 10 calendar days difference, which continued to be used from 1582 until the complete conversion of the Gregorian calendar was entirely done in 1929.
- May 4 – The Municipality of Ilagan is founded in the Philippines.
- May 14 – Joseph Dudley formally begins his tenure as President of the Council of the newly formed Dominion of New England.
- July – The League of Augsburg is founded in response to claims made by Louis XIV of France on the Electorate of the Palatinate in western Germany. It comprises the Holy Roman Empire, the Netherlands, Sweden, Spain and the electors of Bavaria, Saxony and the Electorate of the Palatinate.
- July 17 – King James II of England appoints four Roman Catholics to the Privy Council of England in defiance of the Test Acts which bar Catholics from public office. Suspicions about James's intentions lead to a group of conspirators meeting at Charborough House in Dorset to plan his overthrow and replacement with the Protestant Dutch Stadtholder, William III of Orange-Nassau (James's son-in-law).
- July 22 – New York City and Albany, New York are granted city charters by the colonial governor.
- September 2 – Battle of Buda: The forces of the Holy League of 1684 liberate Buda from Ottoman Turkish rule (leading to the end of Turkish rule in Hungary during the subsequent years).
- Russia, Saxony, Brandenburg and Bavaria join the Holy League against the Ottoman Turkish Empire. Imperial forces under Austrian leadership invade Ottoman-occupied Hungary and advance on Budapest.
- In Greece, Ottoman-occupied Morea (i.e., the Peloponnese) falls to the Venetians.
- A hurricane saves Charleston, South Carolina, from attack by Spanish vessels.
- English historian and naturalist Robert Plot publishes The Natural History of Staffordshire, a collection of illustrations and texts detailing the history of the county. It is the first document known to mention crop circles and a double sunset.
- The Café Procope, which remains in business in the 21st century, is opened in Paris by Procopio Cutò as a coffeehouse.
- January 9 - Andrew Michael Ramsay, English Freemason (d. 1743)
- January 16 – Archibald Bower, Scottish historian (d. 1766)
- January 31 – Hans Egede, Norwegian Lutheran missionary (d. 1758)
- April 9 – James Craggs the Younger, English politician (d. 1721)
- April 28 – Michael Brokoff, Czech sculptor (d. 1721)
- April 29 – Peregrine Bertie, 2nd Duke of Ancaster and Kesteven, English statesman (d. 1742)
- May 24 – Gabriel Fahrenheit, German physicist and inventor (d. 1736)
- May 30 – Antonina Houbraken, Dutch draughtswomen (d. 1736)
- June 9 – Andrei Osterman, Russian statesman (d. 1747)
- July 6 – Antoine de Jussieu, French naturalist (d. 1758)
- July 9 – Philip Livingston, American politician (d. 1749)
- July 31 (or August 1) – Benedetto Marcello, Italian composer (d. 1739)
- August 12 – John Balguy, English philosopher (d. 1748)
- August 19 – Eustace Budgell, English writer (d. 1737)
- August 19 – Nicola Porpora, Italian composer (d. 1768)
- October 15 – Allan Ramsay, Scottish poet (d. 1758)
- January 31 – Jean Mairet, French dramatist (b. 1604)
- February 10 – William Dugdale, English antiquarian (b. 1605)
- April 6 – Arthur Annesley, 1st Earl of Anglesey, English royalist statesman (b. 1614)
- April 19 – Antonio de Solís y Ribadeneyra, Spanish writer (b. 1610)
- June 23 – William Coventry, English statesman (b. c.1628)
- July 10 – John Fell, English churchman (b. 1625)
- July 16 – John Pearson, English theologian (b. 1612)
- August 13 – Louis Maimbourg, French-born historian (b. 1610)
- October 26 – John Egerton, 2nd Earl of Bridgewater, English politician (b. 1623)
- November 11