1687 Peru earthquake

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1687 Peru earthquake
1687 Peru earthquake is located in Peru
1687 Peru earthquake
Local date20 October 1687 (1687-10-20)
Magnitude8.7 Mw
Epicenter15°12′S 75°54′W / 15.200°S 75.900°W / -15.200; -75.900Coordinates: 15°12′S 75°54′W / 15.200°S 75.900°W / -15.200; -75.900[1]
Areas affectedPeru
TsunamiYes
Casualties5,000

The 1687 Peru earthquake occurred at 11:30 UTC on 20 October. It had an estimated magnitude of 8.4–8.7 and caused severe damage to Lima, Callao and Ica. It triggered a tsunami and overall about 5,000 people died.

Tectonic setting[edit]

The earthquake occurred along the boundary between the Nazca Plate and the South American Plate. The earthquake is likely to be a result of thrust faulting, caused by the subduction of the Nazca plate beneath the South American plate.

The coastal parts of Peru and Chile have a history of great megathrust earthquakes originating from this plate boundary, such as the 1960 Valdivia earthquake.

Damage[edit]

The port of Pisco was completely destroyed by the tsunami, with at least three ships being swept over the remains of the town.[2]

Characteristics[edit]

The earthquake was probably followed by another large event further to the south.[2] A magnitude of 8.7 has been estimated from tsunami runup heights and by comparison with the earthquake of 1974.[3]

The tsunami was reported in Japan where it produced runups of tens of metres.[2]

Economic impact[edit]

Chile has a history of exporting cereals to Peru dating back to 1687 when Peru was struck by both an earthquake and a stem rust epidemic.[4] Chilean soil and climatic conditions were better for cereal production than those of Peru and Chilean wheat was cheaper and of better quality than Peruvian wheat.[4][5] According to historians Villalobos et al. 1974 the 1687 events were only the detonant factor for exports to start.[4]

In the 16th and 17th century the principal wine growing area of the Americas was in the central and southern coast of Peru.[6] In Peru the largest wine-making centre was in the area of Ica and Pisco.[6] The earthquake destroyed wine cellars and mud containers used for wine storage.[7] This event marked the end of the Peruvian wine-boom.[8]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ IISEE. "Catalog of Damaging Earthquakes in the World (Through 2007)". Archived from the original on 6 March 2010. Retrieved 1 March 2010.
  2. ^ a b c Okal, Borrero & Synolakis 2006.
  3. ^ Beck & Nishenko 1990.
  4. ^ a b c Villalobos et al. 1974.
  5. ^ Collier & Sater 2004.
  6. ^ a b Huertas Vallejos 2004.
  7. ^ Lacoste 2004.
  8. ^ Cortés Olivares 2005.

Sources[edit]

  1. Beck, Susan L; Nishenko, Stuart P (1990). "Variations in the mode of great earthquake rupture along the Central Peru Subduction Zone". Geophysical Research Letters. 17 (11): 1969–1972. Bibcode:1990GeoRL..17.1969B. doi:10.1029/gl017i011p01969.
  2. Collier, Simon; Sater, William F (2004), "1 - Colonial foundations, 1540–1810", A History of Chile: 1808–2002, CUP, p. 10, ISBN 978-0521534840
  3. Cortés Olivares, Hernán F (2005). "El origen, producción y comercio del pisco chileno, 1546–1931". Universum (in Spanish). Universidad de Talca, Chile: Instituto de Estudios Humanísticos. 20 (2): 42–81. doi:10.4067/S0718-23762005000200005.
  4. Huertas Vallejos, Lorenzo (2004). "Historia de la producción de vinos y piscos en el Perú". Universum (in Spanish). Universidad de Talca, Chile: Instituto de Estudios Humanísticos. 19 (2): 44–61. doi:10.4067/S0718-23762004000200004.
  5. Lacoste, Pablo (2004). "La vid y el vino en América del Sur: el desplazamiento de los polos vitivinícolas (siglos XVI al XX)". Universum (in Spanish). Universidad de Talca, Chile: Instituto de Estudios Humanísticos. 19 (2): 62–93. doi:10.4067/S0718-23762004000200005.
  6. Okal, Emile A; Borrero, José C; Synolakis, Costas E (2006). "Evaluation of Tsunami Risk from Regional Earthquakes at Pisco, Peru" (PDF). Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. 96 (5): 1634–1648. Bibcode:2006BuSSA..96.1634O. doi:10.1785/0120050158.
  7. Villalobos, Sergio; Silva, Osvaldo; Silva, Fernando; Estellé, Patricio (1974), Historia de Chile (in Spanish), Chile: Editorial Universitaria, pp. 155–160