1691 in science
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- Anton Nuck's Adenographia curiosa et uteri foeminei anatome nova is published at Leiden, including a description of the canal of Nuck and a demonstration that the embryo is derived from the ovary and not the sperm.
- Edmond Halley devises a diving bell.
- In music, the "equal temperament scale" used in today's music is developed by organist Andreas Werckmeister.
- January 17 – Richard Lower, English physician who performed the first direct blood transfusion (born 1631)
- December 31 – Robert Boyle, British chemist (born 1627)
- Enersen, Ole Daniel. "Nuck's canal". Whonamedit?. Retrieved 2012-10-15.
- Speert, Harold (1958). Obstetric and Gynecologic Milestones. New York: Macmillan. pp. 95–101.
- Edmonds, Carl; Lowry, C.; Pennefather, John. "History of diving". South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society Journal. 5 (2). Retrieved 2011-06-17.