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16:9 aspect ratio

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A 16:9 rectangle in which rectangles visualize the ratio. The groupings are not square.
A television set with the 16:9 image ratio

16:9 is a widescreen aspect ratio with a width of 16 units and height of 9 units.

Once seen as exotic,[1] since 2009, it has become the most common aspect ratio for televisions and computer monitors, and is also the universal standard image format for the universal 1080p, 2160p and 4320p formats.

16:9 or "sixteen-nine" is the universal widescreen standard format[2] and Wide-aspect Clear-vision.[3] Japan's Hi-Vision originally started with a 15:9 ratio but converted when the international standards group introduced the wider ratio 16:9. Many digital video cameras have the capability to record in 16:9, and this is the only widescreen aspect ratio natively supported by Blu-ray Disc. It is also the native aspect ratio of the Blu-ray Disc, but Blu-ray Disc producers can also choose to show even a wider ratio such as 2.40:1 within the 16:9 frame adding Letterbox black bars within the image itself.[citation needed]

History

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Derivation of the 16:9 aspect ratio
The main figure shows 4:3 and 2.40:1 rectangles with the same area A, and 16:9 rectangles that covers (black) or is common to (grey) them. The calculation considers the extreme rectangles, where m and n are multipliers to maintain their respective aspect ratios and areas.

Kerns H. Powers, a member of the SMPTE Working Group on High-Definition Electronic Production, first proposed the 16:9 (1.77:1) aspect ratio in 1984.[4] The popular choices in 1980 were 4:3 (based on TV standard's ratio at the time), 15:9 (5:3) (the European "flat" 1.66:1 ratio), 1.85:1 (the American "flat" ratio) and 2.35:1 (the CinemaScope/Panavision) ratio for anamorphic widescreen.

Powers cut out rectangles with equal areas, shaped to match each of the popular aspect ratios. When overlapped with their center points aligned, he found that all of those aspect ratio rectangles fit within an outer rectangle with an aspect ratio of 1.77:1 and all of them also covered a smaller common inner rectangle with the same aspect ratio 1.78:1.[5] The value found by Powers is exactly the geometric mean of the extreme aspect ratios, 4:3 and 2.40:1,   1.77 which is coincidentally close to 16:9. Applying the same geometric mean technique to 16:9 and 4:3 yields an aspect ratio of around 1.54:1, sometimes approximated as 14:9 (1.55:1), which is likewise used as a compromise between these ratios.[6]

While 16:9 (1.77:1) was initially selected as a compromise format, the subsequent popularity of HD broadcast has solidified 16:9 as perhaps the most common video aspect ratio in use.[7] Most 4:3 (1.33:1) and 21:9 video is now recorded using a "shoot and protect" technique that keeps the main action within a 16:9 (1.77:1) inner rectangle to facilitate 16:9 conversion and viewing.[8] Conversely it is quite common to use a technique known as center-cutting, to approach the challenge of presenting material shot (typically 16:9) to both an HD and legacy 4:3 audience simultaneously without having to compromise image size for either audience. Content creators frame critical content or graphics to fit within the 1.33:1 raster space. This has similarities to a filming technique called open matte.

In 1993, the European Union instituted the 16:9 Action Plan,[9] to accelerate the development of the advanced television services in 16:9 aspect ratio, both in PALplus (compatible with regular PAL broadcasts) and also in HD-MAC (an early HD format). The Community fund for the 16:9 Action Plan amounted to €228,000,000.

Over a long period in the late 2000s and early 2010s, the computer industry switched from 4:3 to 16:10 (1.60:1) and then to 16:9 as the most common aspect ratio for monitors and laptops. A 2008 report by DisplaySearch cited a number of reasons for this shift, including the ability for PC and monitor manufacturers to expand their product ranges by offering products with wider screens and higher resolutions, helping consumers to more easily adopt such products and "stimulating the growth of the notebook PC and LCD monitor market".[10] By using the same aspect ratio for both TVs and monitors, manufacturing can be streamlined and research costs reduced by not requiring two separate sets of equipment, and since a 16:9 is narrower than a 16:10 panel of the same length, more panels can be created per sheet of glass.[11][12][13]

In 2011, Bennie Budler, product manager of IT products at Samsung South Africa, confirmed that monitors with a native resolution of 1920 × 1200 were not being manufactured anymore. "It is all about reducing manufacturing costs. The new 16:9 aspect ratio panels are more cost-effective to manufacture locally than the previous 16:10 panels".[14]

In March 2011, the 16:9 resolution 1920 × 1080 became the most common used resolution among Steam's users. The previous most common resolution was 1680 × 1050 (16:10).[15] By July 2022, 16:9 resolutions are preferred by 77% of users (1920 × 1080 with 67%; 2560 × 1440 with 10%).[16]

Properties

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16:9 is the only widescreen aspect ratio natively supported by the DVD format. An anamorphic PAL region DVD video frame has a maximum resolution of 720 × 576p, but a video player software will stretch this to 1024 × 576p.

Producers can also choose to show even wider ratios such as 1.85:1 and 2.4:1 within the 16:9 DVD frame by hard matting or adding black bars within the image itself. Some films which were made in a 1.85:1 aspect ratio, such as the U.S.-Italian co-production Man of La Mancha and Kenneth Branagh's Much Ado About Nothing, fit quite comfortably onto a 1.77:1 HDTV screen and have been issued as an enhanced version on DVD without the black bars. Many digital video cameras also have the capability to record in 16:9.

Common resolutions

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Common resolutions for 16:9 are listed in the table below:

Width Height Name
640 360 nHD
854 480 FWVGA
960 540 qHD
1024 576 WSVGA
1280 720 HD
1366 768 FWXGA
1600 900 HD+
1920 1080 Full HD
2560 1440 QHD
3200 1800 QHD+
3840 2160 4K UHD
5120 2880 5K
7680 4320 8K UHD

Countries

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Africa

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Country Channel
 Algeria Algérie 3
Echourouk TV
 Angola All channels.
 Benin All channels.
 Botswana All channels.
 Burkina Faso All channels.
 Burundi All channels.
 Cameroon All channels.
 Cape Verde All channels.
 Central African Republic All channels.
 Chad All channels.
 Comoros All channels.
 Congo All channels.
 DRC All channels.
 Djibouti All channels.
 Egypt All channels.
 Equatorial Guinea All channels.
 Eswatini All channels.
 Ethiopia All channels.
 The Gambia All channels.
 Gabon All channels.
 Ghana All channels.
 Guinea-Bissau All channels.
 Ivory Coast All channels.
 Kenya All channels.
 Lesotho All channels.
 Liberia All channels.
 Libya All channels.
 Madagascar All channels.
 Malawi All channels.
 Mali All channels.
 Morocco All channels.
 Mozambique All channels.
 Mauritania All channels.
 Mauritius All channels.
 Namibia All channels.
 Niger All channels.
 Nigeria All channels.
 Rwanda All channels.
 Sao Tome and Principe All channels.
 Senegal All channels.
 Seychelles All channels.
 Sierra Leone All channels.
 Somalia All channels.
 South Africa All channels.
 South Sudan All channels.
 Sudan All channels.
 Tanzania All channels.
 Togo All channels.
 Tunisia All channels.
 Uganda All channels.
 Zambia All channels.
 Zimbabwe All channels.

Americas

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Country/Territory Channel
 Antigua and Barbuda All channels.
 Argentina All channels.
 Bahamas All channels.
 Barbados All channels.
 Belize All channels.
 Bolivia Always on 16:9: PAT, ATB.
Often on 16:9: Bolivia TV.
 Brazil Channels change between 16:9 and 4:3 pillarbox depending on what's airing.
 British Virgin Islands All channels.
 Canada All channels.
 Cayman Islands All channels.
 Chile All channels. Expect Telecanal in 4.3 in ident 4:3 letterboxed in commercials.
 Colombia All channels.
 Costa Rica All channels.
 Cuba All channels.
 Curaçao All channels.
 Dominica All channels.
 Dominican Republic All channels.
 Ecuador All channels.
 El Salvador All channels.
 Grenada All channels.
 Guatemala All channels.
 Guyana All channels.
 Honduras All channels.
 Jamaica All channels.
 Mexico

Free-to-air television: Las Estrellas, FOROtv, Canal 5, NU9VE, Televisa Regional, Azteca Uno, Azteca 7, a+, adn40, Imagen Televisión, Excélsior TV, Canal Once, Canal 22, Una Voz con Todos, Teveunam, Milenio Televisión, Multimedios Televisión, Teleritmo, and some local HD stations.

Pay television: U, Golden, Golden Edge, TL Novelas, Bandamax, De Película, De Película Clásico, Ritmoson Latino, TDN, TeleHit, Distrito Comedia, Tiin, Az Noticias, Az Clic!, Az Mundo, Az Corazón, Az Cinema, 52MX, TVC, TVC Deportes, Pánico, Cinema Platino, and Cine Mexicano.

 Nicaragua All channels.
 Panama All channels.
 Paraguay Almost all channels on free-to-air television, especially HD feeds (ex.: RPC, NPY, Unicanal, channel 7 HD). SD feeds (usually found on pay television) are usually letterboxed and downscaled to 4:3 (ex.: SNT & Paravisión).
 Peru All channels.
 Saint Kitts and Nevis All channels.
 Saint Lucia All channels.
 Saint Pierre and Miquelon All channels.
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines All channels.
 Suriname All channels.
 Trinidad and Tobago All channels.
 United States All HD channels. SD feeds are usually letterboxed and downscaled to 4:3.
 U.S. Virgin Islands All channels.
 Uruguay All channels.
 Venezuela All channels.

Asia

[edit]
Country/Territory Channel
 Afghanistan All channels.
 Bahrain All channels.
 Bangladesh RTV, SA TV, Somoy TV.
 Brunei All channels (Radio Television Brunei).
 Cambodia All channels.
 China CCTV channels 1–15, CCTV-5+, all CGTN channels. Older contents in 4:3 and news contents are stretched on SD variants of these channels as stretching on SD channels is common.
 Hong Kong All channels.
 India All HD channels. Most SD channels are still broadcasting in 4:3, either fullscreen or letterboxed.
 Indonesia All channels.
 Iran All channels.
 Iraq All channels.
 Israel All channels.
 Japan

All channels.

Japan pioneered its analogue HDTV system (MUSE) in 16:9 format, which started in the 1980s. There were also analog NTSC-compatible widescreen broadcasts using the Clear-Vision system. Currently all main channels have digital terrestrial television channels in 16:9. Many satellite broadcast channels are being broadcast in 16:9 as well.

 Jordan All channels.
 Kuwait All channels.
 Kyrgyzstan All channels.
 Laos All channels.
 Lebanon All channels.
 Malaysia All channels.
 Maldives All channels.
 Mongolia MNB & MN2, TM Television, TV5, TV6, TV8, Channel 25, Эx Орон, SBN, ETV, MNC, Eagle News TV, Edutainment TV, Star TV, SPS, Sportbox, and SHUUD TV.
 Myanmar All channels.
   Nepal Kantipur Television Network, AP1 TV, News 24 (Nepal), TV Filmy, and Nepal Television.
 North Korea All HD channels. Most SD channels are still broadcasting in 4:3, either fullscreen or letterboxed.
 Oman All channels.
 Pakistan All HD channels. Most SD channels are still broadcasting in 4:3, either fullscreen or letterboxed.
 Palestine All channels.
 Philippines

16:9 native:[a] PTV, ANC (both SD and HD),[b] Kapamilya Channel (both SD and HD),[b] A2Z, RPTV, Aliw 23, One PH, One News,[b] One Sports+,[b] Hope Channel Philippines, CCTN, CLTV36, 3ABN, Cinema One, Hope International, INCTV, Net 25, Front Row Channel, Living Asia Channel, Shop TV (both SD and HD), Solar All Access, Solar Sports, SolarFlix, Solar Learning, DZRH News Television, TeleRadyo Serbisyo, Truth Channel, all TAP DMV channels (TAP TV, TAP Edge, TAP Movies, TAP Action Flix, TAP Sports, Premier Sports, Premier Tennis, and Premier Football), BuKo, NBA TV Philippines, PBA Rush, UAAP Varsity Channel, One Media Network, Metro Channel (both SD and HD), Myx, Prime TV, all BEAM TV subchannels (except Knowledge Channel), Sari-Sari Channel, SMNI, SMNI News Channel, IBC, All TV, GMA, GTV and its other subchannels, TV5 (both SD and HD), One Sports (both SD and HD), UNTV,[c] RJ DigiTV and its other subchannels, and TV Maria.

4:3 upscaled/stretched to 16:9:[d] Light TV, Celestial Movies Pinoy, Cine Mo!, Jeepney TV, Knowledge Channel, Pinoy Box Office, Tagalized Movie Channel, UNTV (Ang Dating Daan only) and Viva Cinema.

 Qatar All beIN Sports channels, Al Jazeera Arabic, Al Jazeera English, Al Jazeera Mubasher, Qatar TV HD, and all Alkass channels.
 Saudi Arabia All channels.
 Singapore All channels. 16:9 contents are stretched because the format appears vertically stretched on older 4:3 sets. All 4:3 contents including news clips are also stretched.
 South Korea All channels.
 Sri Lanka All channels
 Syria All channels.
 Taiwan All channels.
 Tajikistan All channels.
 Thailand All channels.
 Timor-Leste All channels.
 Turkey All channels.
 Turkmenistan All channels.
 United Arab Emirates All channels.
 Uzbekistan All channels.
 Vietnam All channels.
 Yemen All channels.
  1. ^ Channels that are squeezed/letterboxed to 4:3 on analog terrestrial transmissions nor no letterbox on widescreen-produced programs
  2. ^ a b c d 16:9 versions available on pay-TV services only
  3. ^ Some programs are aired in true 16:9 formatting
  4. ^ channels that are originally broadcasting in 4:3 on analog terrestrial, but upscaled or stretched to 16:9 for digital terrestrial television, cable and satellite

Europe

[edit]
Country Channel
 Albania All channels.
 Andorra All channels.
 Armenia All channels.
 Austria All channels.
 Azerbaijan All channels.
 Belarus All channels.
 Belgium All channels.
 Bosnia and Herzegovina All channels.
 Bulgaria All channels.
 Cyprus All channels.
 Croatia All channels.
 Czech Republic All channels.
 Denmark All channels.
 Estonia All channels.
 Finland All channels.
 France All channels.
 Germany All channels.
 Georgia All channels.
 Greece All channels.
 Hungary All channels.
 Iceland All channels.
 Ireland All channels.
 Italy All channels.
 Kazakhstan All channels.
 Latvia All channels.
 Lithuania All channels.
 Luxembourg All channels.
 Malta All channels.
 Moldova All channels.
 Monaco All channels.
 Montenegro All channels.
 Netherlands All channels.
 North Macedonia All channels.
 Norway All channels.
 Poland All channels.
 Portugal All channels.
 Romania All channels.
 Russia All channels.
 San Marino All channels.
 Serbia All channels.
 Slovakia All channels.
 Slovenia All channels.
 Spain All channels.
 Sweden All channels.
  Switzerland All channels.
 Ukraine All channels.
 United Kingdom All channels.

Oceania

[edit]
Country/Territory Channel
 American Samoa All channels.
 Australia All channels.
 Federated States of Micronesia All channels.
 Fiji All channels.
 French Polynesia All channels.
 Guam All channels.
 Kiribati All channels.
 Marshall Islands All channels.
 Nauru All channels.
 New Caledonia All channels.
 New Zealand All channels.
 Niue All channels.
 Palau All channels.
 Papua New Guinea All channels.
 Samoa All channels.
 Solomon Islands All channels.
 Tonga All channels.
 Tuvalu All channels.
 Vanuatu All channels.
 Wallis and Futuna All channels.

See also

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References

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  1. ^ Hoehler, Dieter (2008-06-03). "A Brief Review on HDTV in Europe in the early 90's". Live-Production.TV.
  2. ^ "Recommendation ITU-R BT.1197-1 Enhanced wide-screen PAL TV transmission system (the PALplus system)" (PDF). itu.int.
  3. ^ Recommendation ITU-R BT.1298 - Enhanced wide-screen NTSC TV transmission system (PDF). ITU. 1997.
  4. ^ Searching for the Perfect Aspect Ratio (PDF)
  5. ^ "Understanding Aspect Ratios" (Technical bulletin). CinemaSource. The CinemaSource Press. 2001. Retrieved 2009-10-24.
  6. ^ EN 5956091, "Method of showing 16:9 pictures on 4:3 displays", issued 1999-09-21 
  7. ^ "Why 16:9 aspect ratio was chosen for HD?". Guruprasad's Portal. 2014-06-13. Archived from the original on 2021-11-16. Retrieved 2021-09-17.
  8. ^ Baker, I (1999-08-25). "Safe areas for widescreen transmission" (PDF). EBU. CH: BBC. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-10-11. Retrieved 2009-10-27.
  9. ^ "Television in the 16:9 screen format" (legislation summary). EU: Europa. Retrieved 2011-09-08.
  10. ^ "Product Planners and Marketers Must Act Before 16:9 Panels Replace Mainstream 16:10 Notebook PC and Monitor LCD Panels, New DisplaySearch Topical Report Advises". DisplaySearch. 2008-07-01. Retrieved 2011-09-08.
  11. ^ "Display Ratio Change (again)". 2009-04-14. Archived from the original on 2020-03-02. Retrieved 2020-01-22.
  12. ^ "16:10 vs 16:9 - the monitor aspect ratio conundrum". 2012-10-22. Retrieved 2020-01-22.
  13. ^ "Resurgence of 16:10 Aspect Ratio Laptop Computers to Occupy 2% Share of Non-Apple Market in 2020, Says TrendForce". 2019-04-11. Retrieved 2020-01-22.
  14. ^ "Widescreen monitors: Where did 1920×1200 go? « Hardware « MyBroadband Tech and IT News". Mybroadband.co.za. 2011-01-10. Retrieved 2011-09-08.
  15. ^ "Steam Hardware & Software Survey". Steam. Retrieved 2011-09-08.
  16. ^ "Steam Hardware & Software Survey". store.steampowered.com.
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