|Millennium:||1st millennium BC|
|16 BC by topic|
|Gregorian calendar||16 BC|
|Ab urbe condita||738|
|Ancient Greek era||191st Olympiad (victor)¹|
|Balinese saka calendar||N/A|
|Chinese calendar||甲辰年 (Wood Dragon)|
2681 or 2621
— to —
乙巳年 (Wood Snake)
2682 or 2622
|Coptic calendar||−299 – −298|
|Ethiopian calendar||−23 – −22|
|- Vikram Samvat||41–42|
|- Shaka Samvat||N/A|
|- Kali Yuga||3085–3086|
|Iranian calendar||637 BP – 636 BP|
|Islamic calendar||657 BH – 656 BH|
|Julian calendar||16 BC|
|Minguo calendar||1927 before ROC|
|Seleucid era||296/297 AG|
|Thai solar calendar||527–528|
111 or −270 or −1042
— to —
112 or −269 or −1041
Year 16 BC was either a common year starting on Monday, Tuesday or Wednesday or a leap year starting on Monday or Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar (the sources differ, see leap year error for further information) and a common year starting on Sunday of the Proleptic Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Ahenobarbus and Scipio (or, less frequently, year 738 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 16 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
- The Noricans having joined with the Pannonians in invading Histria, are defeated by Publius Silius Nerva, proconsul of Illyricum.
- Braga, Portugal is founded.
- Noricum is incorporated into the Roman Empire.
- Caesar Augustus reorganizes the German provinces, making Trier their capital.
- Clades Lolliana: Roman consul Marcus Lollius is defeated by a Germanic horde.
- Construction of the Roman temple of Maison Carrée at Nîmes in Gallia Narbonensis (approximate date).
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- Aemilius Macer, Roman didactic poet and writer
- Scribonius, Roman client king of the Bosporan Kingdom
- Wang, Chinese empress of the Western Han Dynasty