Theatrical release poster
|Directed by||P. Bharathiraja|
|Produced by||S. A. Rajkannu|
|Written by||P. Bharathiraja
P. Kalaimani (dialogue)
|Cinematography||P. S. Nivas|
|Edited by||R. Bhaskaran|
Sri Amman Creations
|Distributed by||Sri Amman Creations|
|Budget||₹425,000 – ₹500,000|
16 Vayathinile (English: At Age 16; read as Pathinaaru Vayathinile) is a 1977 Indian Tamil drama film written and directed by P. Bharathiraja in his directorial debut. The film features Kamal Haasan, Sridevi, and Rajinikanth in prominent roles, with Ganthimathi playing Sridevi's mother. It marks the debut of comedian Goundamani, who plays Rajinikanth's friend. 16 Vayathinile 's soundtrack album and background score were composed by Ilaiyaraaja, with cinematography by P. S. Nivas. P. Kalaimani wrote the film's dialogue.
It focuses on the strengths and vulnerabilities of Mayil (Sridevi), a 16-year-old schoolgirl, and the challenges she faces and overcomes. The film, originally titled Mayil, is set in rural Tamil Nadu and is Rajinikanth's first colour film. 16 Vayathinile is the first Tamil film to be shot completely outdoors; Tamil films were primarily filmed in Chennai studios.
The first Tamil film distributed by a producer across Tamil Nadu, 16 Vayathinile was released on 15 September 1977 to critical praise for Bharathiraja's script, Ilaiyaraaja's music and the performances of Kamal, Sridevi and Rajinikanth. It was commercially successful, with a 175-day theatrical run.
16 Vayathinile, considered a Tamil cult film, is the bellwether of films featuring realistic portrayals of rural life. Making stars of its director and lead actors, the film won the National Film Award for Best Female Playback Singer for S. Janaki, the Filmfare Award for Best Actor (Tamil) for Kamal and five State Awards. It was remade in Telugu by K. Raghavendra Rao as Padaharella Vayasu (1978) and in Hindi by Bharathiraja as Solva Sawan (1979), with Sridevi reprising her role in both versions.
Mayil (Sridevi) is a 16-year-old schoolgirl who lives in a village with her mother, Guruvammal (Ganthimathi). Guruvammal also takes care of the limping orphan Gopalakrishnan (Kamal Haasan), who is called "Chappani" ("Lame") by the villagers and does whatever he can to earn a living. Mayil's ambition is to become a teacher, and she hopes to marry a sophisticated, educated man; although Chappani is in love with her, she ignores him.
A Chennai veterinarian, Sathyajith (Sathyajith), arrives in the village to work and falls in love with Mayil. Mayil (believing that Sathyajith is the man for her) falls in love with him, refusing an opportunity to attend a teacher-training course in Chennai to remain with him. Despite loving Sathyajith, she does not allow him to exploit her sexually, which disappoints him. Never intending a serious relationship with Mayil, he prepares to leave for Chennai to get married. When she begs Sathyajith not to leave her, he says he befriended her for pleasure—not marriage.
A dejected Mayil confesses this to Guruvammal, who quickly plans to betroth her to someone else. The village ruffian Parattaiyan, alias Parattai (Rajinikanth)—who also loves Mayil—spreads rumours about her relationship with Sathyajith. Because of this, Mayil's engagement plans grind to a halt and the village becomes hostile to her. Unable to bear the shame, Guruvammal commits suicide and leaves Chappani to take care of Mayil.
Chappani takes good care of Mayil, cheering her up when she needs it. She warms to Chappani, making him more confident and assertive and grooming him and his manners, to the surprise of many in the village. Mayil tells him to slap anyone who calls him "Chappani" and to respond only to those who address him by his name, Gopalakrishnan. When Sathyajith and Parattai call him "Chappani" despite his request to use his real name, Gopalakrishnan slaps them; insulted, Parattai later beats him badly. Mayil saves Gopalakrishnan, spitting on Parattai for the brutal attack.
Mayil decides to marry Gopalakrishnan, and sends him to the nearby town for wedding supplies. Learning of Gopalakrishnan's absence, Parattai goes to Mayil's house and tries to rape her. Gopalakrishnan returns to Mayil's house and pleads with Parattai to leave her. When Parattai refuses, he kills him with a rock and is arrested. Gopalakrishnan promises Mayil that he will return, and the film ends with her waiting for him.
- Kamal Haasan as Gopalakrishnan (Chappani)
- Sridevi as Mayil
- Rajinikanth as Parattaiyan (Parattai)
- Ganthimathi as Guruvammal
- Sathyajith as Sathyajith
- Goundamani as Koothu
16 Vayathinile was P. Bharathiraja's directorial debut and his first screenplay. He originally planned to make a film funded by the National Film Development Corporation of India under the title Mayil, with Nagesh and Roja Ramani in mind for the lead roles, but the NFDC rejected his script. In an October 2013 interview, Bharathiraja said that the script was rejected at the last minute without a reason.
When S. P. Balasubrahmanyam heard about the rejection he introduced Bharathiraja to S. A. Rajkannu, and Bharathiraja told Rajkannu about his ideas for Sigappu Rojakkal (1978) and Mayil. Although Rajkannu was uninterested in the first, he agreed to produce Mayil. Feeling that 16 Vayathinile sounded more artistic than Mayil, Rajkannu asked Bharathiraja to change the film's title. A few alterations were made to the screenplay, and the dialogue was written by P. Kalaimani.
Although Bharathiraja was initially hesitant to direct the film, Rajkannu insisted and he received an advance of ₹500.[b] 16 Vayathinile was initially made on a low budget of ₹425,000.[b] P. S. Nivas was signed as cinematographer, Somnath-Kamalasekharan as art director and R. Bhaskaran as editor.
According to producer and writer G. Dhananjayan, the characters in 16 Vayathinile were inspired by David Lean's romantic drama Ryan's Daughter (1970). Bharathiraja wanted Chitra Lakshmanan (assistant director with K. Bhagyaraj) to sign Kamal for the role of Chappani, expecting to pay Kamal ₹15,000[b] since the actor had received ₹17,000[c] for Aayirathil Oruthi (1975). When Kamal asked for ₹30,000,[b] Lakshmanan suggested that Bharathiraja offer the role to Sivakumar since the production unit could not afford Kamal's request; however, Bharathiraja saw Kamal as the ideal choice and agreed to pay him ₹27,000.[b] For his character, the actor grew his curly hair long and wore lungis and khaddar high-buttoned shirts. Sridevi received ₹5,000[b] for her role as Mayil.
Bharathiraja, who had been an assistant director to Puttanna Kanagal, included Rajinikanth in the film after seeing his performance in Katha Sangama (1976). Rajinikanth received ₹3,000[b][d] for his first appearance in a colour film. Since the actor was not fluent in Tamil at the time, Bhagyaraj read him his lines and Rajinikanth repeated them until he mastered them. For Mayil's mother Guruvammal, Bharathiraja wanted someone who could speak the village dialect fluently and chose Ganthimathi for her acting style. Receiving a salary of ₹150,[b] Bhagyaraj was initially considered for the veterinarian's role but wanted to concentrate on directing; that role finally went to newcomer Sathyajith. 16 Vayathinile marked the film debut of comedian Goundamani.
Shot in 25 days in Mysore, Sivasamudram, Velakkadu, Kolakkadu and Kollegal, 16 Vayathinile was the first Tamil film made completely outdoors with no artificial lighting. The actors wore normal village clothing and wore no make-up. When they found filming in Eastman Colour too expensive, the crew halved their costs by using ORWO film. According to Kamal, due to budgetary constraints the technical crew could not afford a camera which could film slow motion and Sridevi had to run in slow motion for the song "Chendoora Poove". Kamal's salary helped increase the budget from ₹425,000 to ₹500,000.[b]
The scene in which Mayil spits on Parattai required several takes before Rajinikanth insisted that Sridevi actually spit on him for realism. Rajinikanth finished his part of the film in six days. While Bharathiraja wanted the film to follow a linear narration, it was Bhagyaraj's idea to begin the film with a flashback sequence. After the film completed its shoot, it was screened at least 20 times for the distributors and the narrative switched every time between the linear and non-linear versions. Eventually, the producer himself released the film, with the flashback narrative. A total of 8,534 metres (27,999 ft) of film negative was used, and its final length was 3,822 m (12,539 ft).
Original album cover
|Soundtrack album by Ilaiyaraaja|
|Genre||Feature film soundtrack|
This was Ilaiyaraaja's first collaboration with Kamal. Bharathiraja insisted that the director and Rajkannu meet Ilayaraaja, although Rajkannu doubted if Ilaiyaraaja would sign on since he had become well-known after his 1976 debut film Annakili. Ilaiyaraaja initially refused because of an earlier bet with Bharathiraja that Ilayaraaja's mentor, G. K. Venkatesh, would compose the music for Bharathiraja's first film. Venkatesh later insisted that Ilaiyaraaja compose the music.
Although Ilayaraja wanted S. P. Balasubrahmanyam to sing "Chavanthi Poo" and "Aattukkutti", the singer had pharyngitis and was replaced by Malaysia Vasudevan. "Chavanthi Poo", the first song recorded, was the first written by Kannadasan for the film and Gangai Amaran's debut as lyricist. According to film critic Baradwaj Rangan, the song used Viennese musical tropes. B. Kolappan of The Hindu wrote that "Chendoora Poove" "employs a rush of violins to set up the intro for the folk melody that follows."
The album, a blend of folk and Western classical music, was praised by critics and "Chendoora Poove" remains popular among the Tamil diaspora. In his book, Pride of Tamil Cinema, G. Dhananjayan wrote that Ilaiyaraaja "achieved great heights with this album". About "Chendoora Poove", B. Kolappan of The Hindu wrote: "The maestro’s genius is most evident in his ability to combine forms seamlessly." IndiaGlitz included "Chendoora Poove" on its list of Ilaiyaraaja's best songs for guitar, and the song inspired a 1988 film starring Vijayakanth and a television serial of the same name. The film's songs were remastered in DTS 5.1 six-channel audio by A. Muthusamy of Honey Bee Music in June 2013.
|1.||"Manjakkulichi"||Alangudi Somu||S. Janaki||4:26|
|2.||"Chendoora Poove"||Gangai Amaran||S. Janaki||3:33|
|1.||"Aattukkutti"||Kannadasan||Malaysia Vasudevan, S. Janaki||4:20|
|2.||"Chavanthi Poo"||Kannadasan||Malaysia Vasudevan, P. Susheela||4:34|
16 Vayathinile was released on 15 September 1977. During its early theatrical run, the audience could not understand the film and there were catcalls outside theatres. Within a week its box office improved due to positive reviews and word of mouth, and it became commercially successful. 16 Vayathinile completed a theatrical run of 175 days, making it a silver jubilee film.[f]
The film's box office improved so much that the producer went into hiding to avoid income-tax raids, and it was the first Tamil film released by a producer across Tamil Nadu without distributors. When 16 Vayathinile became successful, distributors bought the theatrical rights for a number of areas across the state. The film was remade in Telugu by K. Raghavendra Rao as Padaharella Vayasu (1978) and in Hindi by Bharathiraja as Solva Sawan (1979), with Sridevi reprising her role in both.
The film received critical acclaim, with praise for Bharathiraja's script, Ilaiyaraaja's music and the performances of Kamal, Sridevi and Rajinikanth. According to the Tamil magazine Ananda Vikatan 's original review, "If four more films come with the quality of this film, Tamil cinema will achieve greater heights". G. Dhananjayan wrote that 16 Vayathinile was "truly a marvellous film which has an universal appeal even today for the way it was made".
IndiaGlitz said, "Rajini [sic] as Parattai is as sly as a fox, Kamal as Chappani the innocent lad and Sridevi the attractive teacher give a enjoyable performance. You are sure to keep remembering "Pathavachitiye Parattai" after watching this movie." Rediff called 16 Vayathinile a "new genre of pastoral film, which was true to village life in characterisation, costumes and dialect". According to Behindwoods, "Bharathiraja’s raw and near perfect depiction of a village had two of Tamil cinema’s most memorable all time performances, Parattai and Chappani".
In addition to the National Film Award for Best Female Playback Singer for S. Janaki, 16 Vayathinile won Kamal the Filmfare Award in the Best Tamil Actor category. The film won five Tamil Nadu State Film Awards, and Rajinikanth won the Arima Sangam Award for Best Actor for his role as Parattai.
|National Film Awards||25th National Film Awards||Best Female Playback Singer||S. Janaki||Won|||
|Filmfare Awards||6th Filmfare Awards South||Best Actor – Tamil||Kamal Haasan||Won|
|Tamil Nadu State Film Awards||4th Tamil Nadu State Film Awards||Best Film (First prize)||S. A. Rajkannu||Won|
|Best Director||P. Bharathiraja||Won|
|Best Actor||Kamal Haasan||Won|
|Best Music Director||Ilaiyaraaja||Won|
|Best Female Playback Singer||S. Janaki||Won|
I am Bharatiraja's [sic] very first fan. These are not empty words. Before 16 Vayathinile's release, when he showed me the film, I wrote him a letter of appreciation. That's why I say that I'm his first fan and proud to be so.
16 Vayathinile is considered a cult film and a landmark in Tamil cinema, diverging from traditional Tamil films of the time.[g] With Annakili (1976), the film was a bellwether for realistic portrayals of rural life and made stars of Bharathiraja, Kamal, Sridevi and Rajinikanth. According to Rajinikanth's biographer Naman Ramachandran and S. Shiva Kumar of The Hindu, Kamal's performance was considered a tour de force by critics since he was typecast as a romantic hero at that time. The dialogue "Idhu Eppadi Irukku?" ("How's this?"), the first catchphrase of Rajinikanth's career, became very popular; IANS, Rediff and Behindwoods included it on their lists of lines popularised by Rajinikanth. Goundamani's line, "Paththa Vechutiye Parattai" ("You've started it, Parattai"), was also popular in Tamil Nadu.
In July 2007, S. R. Ashok Kumar of The Hindu asked eight Tamil directors to list their all-time favourite Tamil films; seven – C. V. Sridhar, K. Balachander, J. Mahendran, K. Bhagyaraj, Mani Ratnam, K. S. Ravikumar and Ameer – named 16 Vayathinile. According to Ratnam, the film was "memorable for its script, high standard and realism." The magazine South Scope included Kamal's performance on its "Kamal's best performances" list in July 2010. S. Shiva Kumar of The Hindu included the film on his December 2010 list of "Electrifying Rajinikanth-Kamal Haasan films" with Moondru Mudichu (1976), Avargal (1977) and Aval Appadithan (1978). In April 2013 CNN-IBN included the film on its list of "100 greatest Indian films of all time", saying that it was a "decisive move away from the studio-bound productions and paved the way for successful integration of subaltern themes and folk arts into mainstream commercial cinema." On 11 December 2014, The Times of India included 16 Vayathinile on its list of "Top 12 Rajinikanth movies". Actors Vijay Sethupathi and Vikram included 16 Vayathinile among their favourite films. After seeing the film, K. Balachander wrote in a letter of appreciation to Bharathiraja: "You have hit the bull's eye".
16 Vayathinile was spoofed in Murattu Kaalai (2012) by Vivek, whose character Saroja is called "Mayil" by Cell Murugan's character (a veterinarian similar to Sathyajith's character in the film). Sridevi's line, "Aatha Naan Passaayitten" ("Mother, I've passed the exam"), was the title of a 1990 film starring Arjun Sarja. Sathyaraj's film Azhagesan (2004) was compared by critics to 16 Vayathinile because of its antagonist's similarity to Kamal's character, Chappani. In Sivaji (2007), Vivek's character delivers one of Rajinikanth's catchphrases and finishes by saying: "Idhu eppadi irukku?". The film's title and characters have inspired other film titles: Parattai Engira Azhagu Sundaram (2007), Mayilu (2012) and 36 Vayadhinile (2015). In 2000 Bharathiraja's son, Manoj, and the actress Meena released a low-profile pop album entitled Pathinaaru Vayathinile.
- G. Dhananjayan's Pride of Tamil Cinema gives the runtime as 133 minutes, while Ashish Rajadhyaksha and Paul Willemen's Encyclopedia of Indian Cinema give the runtime as 139 minutes.
- The exchange rate in 1977 was 8.7386 Indian rupees (₹) per 1 US dollar (US$)
- The exchange rate in 1975 was 8.3759 Indian rupees (₹) per 1 US dollar (US$).
- In 2013, Bharathiraja revealed that although he had finalised ₹3,000 as the salary for Rajinikanth after the latter initially charged ₹5,000, he had paid ₹2,500 to Rajinikanth.
- Ilaiyaraaja, in an April 2015 interview with Maalai Malar, stated that Kannadasan accepted salaries ranging from ₹1,000 to ₹1,500. Ilaiyaraaja requested Kannadasan to accept ₹750 citing the film's budget constraints, to which Kannadasan agreed.
- A Silver Jubilee film is one that completes a theatrical run of 175 days (25 weeks).
- Tamil films were mostly made in studios in Chennai till then.
- Dhananjayan 2014, p. 243.
- Rajadhyaksha & Willemen 2014, p. 483.
- Dhananjayan 2014, p. 245.
- Dhananjayan 2014, p. 244.
- R. Ilangovan (18 October 2013). "Man behind the 1970s wave". Frontline. Archived from the original on 23 May 2015. Retrieved 23 May 2015.
- Dhananjayan 2014, pp. 243–244.
- Werner Antweiler (2015). "Foreign Currency Units per 1 U.S. Dollar, 1948–2014" (PDF). PACIFIC Exchange Rate Service. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 May 2015. Retrieved 23 May 2015.
- Dhananjayan 2011, p. 4.
- "Southscope July 2010 – Side A". South Scope. 2010. p. 51. Retrieved 25 May 2015.
- "Both Rajinikanth and Kamal Haasan in October". Behindwoods. 4 October 2013. Archived from the original on 7 October 2013. Retrieved 12 December 2013.
- Ramachandran 2014, p. 66.
- Sri (12 June 2010). "K.Bhaagya Raj — Chitchat — Slide 1". Telugucinema.com. Archived from the original on 30 December 2010. Retrieved 23 May 2015.
- "Actor Kanthimathi dead". The Hindu. 9 September 2011. Archived from the original on 23 May 2015. Retrieved 12 December 2013.
- S. R. Ashok Kumar (29 March 2007). "A good feature film must be remembered for time to come". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 23 May 2015. Retrieved 12 December 2013.
- Dhananjayan 2014, p. 246.
- Dhananjayan 2014, pp. 245–46.
- A. Shrikumar (26 January 2013). "Rustic tone". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
- "When Sridevi spat on Rajinikanth!". The Times of India. 5 October 2013. Archived from the original on 23 May 2015. Retrieved 12 December 2013.
- Ilaiyaraaja (19 April 2015). "பாரதிராஜாவின் 16 வயதினிலே படத்திற்கு இசை அமைக்க இளையராஜா மறுப்பு! (Ilayaraaja refuses to compose for Bharathiraja's 16 Vayathinile)". Maalai Malar (in Tamil). Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
- "16 Vayathinile songs". Raaga.com. Archived from the original on 15 August 2014. Retrieved 1 October 2013.
- Ilaiyaraaja (1977). "16 Vayathinile". The Gramophone Company of India Ltd. Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
- Baradwaj Rangan (6 September 2014). "And more on the Ilaiyaraaja connection". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
- Ilaiyaraaja (20 April 2015). "16 வயதினிலே படத்தின் பாடல் பதிவு: எஸ்.பி.பாலசுப்பிரமணியத்துக்கு பதிலாக மலேசியா வாசுதேவன் (16 Vayathinile song recording: S. P. Balasubrahmanyam replaced with Malaysia Vasudevan)". Maalai Malar (in Tamil). Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
- Ilaiyaraaja (21 April 2015). "இளையராஜா இசை அமைப்பில் செந்தூரப்பூவே பாடலை எழுதினார், கங்கை அமரன் (Gangai Amaran wrote the lyrics for Ilaiyaraaja's "Chendoora Poove")". Maalai Malar (in Tamil). Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
- Baradwaj Rangan (14 October 2011). "The strange man in a Superman suit". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
- B. Kolappan (25 December 2012). "In tune with nativity and modernity". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
- Ramachandran 2014, p. 67.
- "Goosebumps of Guitar". IndiaGlitz. 27 February 2014. Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
- "Vijayakanth's Senthoora Poove To Have Telugu Remake". Oneindia Entertainment. 12 August 2013. Archived from the original on 18 July 2015. Retrieved 15 July 2015.
- "Senthoora Poove". The Hindu. 25 July 2008. Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
- K. Jeshi (13 June 2013). "Music to his ears". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
- A Sharadhaa (23 October 2013). "Yesterday, once more". The New Indian Express. Archived from the original on 18 December 2013. Retrieved 12 December 2013.
- Dhananjayan 2011, p. 184.
- "End of the world movies". IndiaGlitz. 20 December 2012. Archived from the original on 24 March 2015. Retrieved 12 December 2013.
- "Rajnikath, the villain". Rediff. 21 May 2007. Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 14 December 2013.
- "Rajini's finest moments on screen!". Behindwoods. 12 December 2008. Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 14 December 2013.
- Dhananjayan 2014, p. 246; Ramachandran 2014, p. 68.
- Ramachandran 2014, p. 68.
- Sreedhar Pillai (26 April 2007). "Mother-son sentiment". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 12 December 2013.
- "Rajini & Kamal come together to promote '16 Vayathinile'". Sify. 5 October 2013. Archived from the original on 8 October 2013. Retrieved 12 December 2013.
- Pavithra Srinivasan (20 May 2008). "The best of Kamal Haasan". Rediff. Archived from the original on 16 July 2013. Retrieved 12 December 2013.
- Sangeetha Seshagiri (10 October 2013). "Rajinikanth, Kamal Haasan's Cult Classic '16 Vayathinile' to Re-Release in October". International Business Times. Archived from the original on 8 October 2013. Retrieved 12 December 2013.
- Dhananjayan 2014, p. 246; Ramachandran 2014, p. 67.
- S. Shiva Kumar (27 August 2009). "'I'm a limelight moth'". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
- Dhananjayan 2014, pp. 245-246.
- "Rajinikanth’s punchnama". The Hindu. IANS. 13 December 2013. Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 14 December 2013.
- "Adrasaka Adrasaka!". IndiaGlitz. 27 December 2012. Archived from the original on 25 May 2015. Retrieved 25 May 2015.
- S. R. Ashok Kumar (13 July 2007). "Filmmakers’ favourites". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 11 October 2014. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
- S. Shiva Kumar (31 December 2010). "Immortality ode". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
- "100 Years of Indian Cinema: The 100 greatest Indian films of all time". CNN-IBN. 17 April 2013. Archived from the original on 26 December 2013. Retrieved 6 May 2013.
- "Top 12 Rajinikanth movies". The Times of India. 11 December 2014. Archived from the original on 26 May 2015. Retrieved 26 May 2015.
- Sudhish Kamath (19 September 2013). "Full of pizzazz!". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
- "Why I like... Pathinaaru Vayathinile". The Hindu. 15 February 2008. Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
- Malathi Rangarajan (22 April 2010). "Another avatar". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
- Malini Mannath (17 June 2012). "'Murattu Kaalai' (Tamil)". The New Indian Express. Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 14 December 2013.
- Malathi Rangarajan (16 June 2012). "Murattu Kaalai — Not as raging ...". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
- 16 Vayathinile (Motion picture). India: Sri Amman Creations. 16 August 2012. Clip from 07:00 to 07:02.
- Tamil Full Movie Aatha Naan Paasayiten – Ft. Arjun Sarja, Bhanupriya (Motion picture). India: Anita Pictures. 19 September 2014.
- "Dispute over Azhagesan remake". IndiaGlitz. 6 August 2004. Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
- Sivaji The Boss Tamil (சிவாஜி) – Full Movie 1080p HD (Motion picture). India: AVM Productions. 29 November 2013. Clip from 37:36 to 37:53.
- "Mayilu Movie Review". Behindwoods. 5 November 2012. Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
- Nivedita Mishra (20 March 2015). "36 Vayathinile: Watch Jyothika's emotional journey to self discovery". Hindustan Times. Archived from the original on 25 May 2015. Retrieved 25 May 2015.
- "'Pathinaru Vayathinile' - music review". Chennai Online. Archived from the original on 9 March 2001. Retrieved 6 October 2015.
- Dhananjayan, G. (2011). The Best of Tamil Cinema, 1931 to 2010: 1977–2010. Galatta Media. ISBN 978-81-921043-0-0.
- Dhananjayan, G. (2014). Pride of Tamil Cinema: 1931 to 2013. Blue Ocean Publishers. ISBN 978-93-84301-05-7.
- Rajadhyaksha, Ashish; Willemen, Paul (2014) . Encyclopaedia of Indian Cinema. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-5795-8146-6.
- Ramachandran, Naman (2014) . Rajinikanth: The Definitive Biography (2nd ed.). Penguin Books Limited. ISBN 978-81-8475-796-5.