16th Michigan Volunteer Infantry Regiment
|16th Regiment Michigan Volunteer Infantry|
Michigan state flag
|Active||July, 1861 to July 8, 1865|
Battle of Second Bull Run
Battle of Antietam
Battle of Fredericksburg
Battle of Chancellorsville
Battle of Gettysburg
Battle of the Wilderness
Battle of Spotsylvania Court House
Battle of Cold Harbor
Siege of Petersburg
Battle of Five Forks
The 16th Michigan Infantry was organized as Stockton's Independent Regiment at Plymouth and Detroit, Michigan between July and September, 1861. Among the soldiers in the 16th was future Michigan state politician Henry H. Aplin. It was mustered into U.S. service as the 16th Regiment, Michigan Volunteer Infantry on Sept. 8, 1861 with an enrollment of 761 officers and men. The Regiment left Detroit for Washington, D.C., on Sept. 16, 1861 to join Butterfield's Brigade, Fitz John Porter's Division, Army of the Potomac. It went into camp at Hall's Hill, Arlington, Virginia, Defences of Washington, D.C., for the winter of 1861-62.
At the Battle of Gettysburg on the second day they defended Little Round Top against a determined Confederate attack aimed at flanking the Union Army. They were one of four regiments, of the 3rd brigade, of the 1st Division of the V Corps of the Union Army of the Potomac. The 3rd brigade was commanded by Col. Strong Vincent. It consisted of the 16th Michigan, the 44th New York, the 83rd Pennsylvania, and the 20th Maine, placed in that order right to left, with the 16th at the right end closest to the rest of the Union Army, and the 20th Maine at the left end, the actual end of the entire Union Army at Gettysburg.
The 3rd brigade arrived at Little Round Top only minutes before the Confederate attack. The 16th Michigan bore repeated attacks from the 4th and 5th Texas. The 16th was the smallest regiment in the brigade, with only 263 men. Several times Vincent successfully rallied the 16th Michigan to repel the Texas charge. Vincent was mortally wounded during one Texas charge and died on July 7, after receiving a deathbed promotion to brigadier general.
Before the Michiganders could be overrun, reinforcements arrived in the form of the 140th New York and a battery of four guns—Battery D, 5th U.S. Artillery. The 140th New York took position immediately to the right of the 16th Michigan.
The 16th Michigan remained in position on Little Round Top for the rest of the Battle of Gettysburg.
End of Service
The regiment was mustered out of service on July 8, 1865.
Total strength and casualties
The regiment suffered 12 officers and 235 enlisted men who were killed in action or mortally wounded and 143 enlisted men who died of disease, for a total of 390 fatalities.
Original field staff
- Colonel Thomas B. Stockton of Flint, Michigan, age not available
- Lt. Colonel John V. Reuhle of Detroit, Michigan, age not available
- Major Norval E. Welch of Ann Arbor, Michigan, 26
- Surgeon Isaac Wixam of Argentine, Michigan, 58
- Asst. Surgeon William H. Butler of Buffalo, New York, 36
- Adjutant Thomas E. Morris of East Saginaw, Michigan, 26
- Quartermaster Miner S. Newell of Flushing, Michigan, 32
- Chaplain William H. Brockway of Plymouth, Michigan, 48
- http://www.civilwararchive.com/Unreghst/unmiinf2.htm#16th The Civil War Archive website after Dyer, Frederick Henry. A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion. 3 vols. New York: Thomas Yoseloff, 1959.