17α-Estradiol

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17α-Estradiol
Alfatradiol skeletal.svg
Names
IUPAC name
(8R,9S,13S,14S,17R)-13-Methyl-6,7,8,9,11,12,14,15,16,17-decahydrocyclopenta[a]phenanthrene-3,17-diol
Other names
17α-E2; Alpha-Estradiol; Alfatradiol; 17-Epiestradiol; Estra-1,3,5(10)-triene-3,17α-diol; β-Estradiol (obsolete, misleading)[1]
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.000.322
UNII
Properties
C18H24O2
Molar mass 272.388 g·mol−1
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Infobox references

17α-Estradiol (also known as 17α-E2, 17-epiestradiol, alfatradiol, or estra-1,3,5(10)-triene-3,17α-diol) is a minor and weak endogenous steroidal estrogen that is related to 17β-estradiol (better known simply as estradiol).[2] It is the C17 epimer of estradiol.[2] It has approximately 100-fold lower estrogenic potency than 17β-estradiol.[3] The compound shows preferential affinity for the ERα over the ERβ.[2][4] Although 17α-estradiol is far weaker than 17β-estradiol as an agonist of the nuclear estrogen receptors, it has been found to bind to and activate the brain-expressed ER-X with a greater potency than that of 17β-estradiol, suggesting that it may be the predominant endogenous ligand for the receptor.[5]

Affinities of estrogen receptor ligands for the ERα and ERβ
Ligand Other names Relative binding affinities (RBA, %)a Absolute binding affinities (Ki, nM)a Action
ERα ERβ ERα ERβ
Estradiol E2; 17β-Estradiol 100 100 0.115 (0.04–0.24) 0.15 (0.10–2.08) Estrogen
Estrone E1; 17-Ketoestradiol 16.39 (0.7–60) 6.5 (1.36–52) 0.445 (0.3–1.01) 1.75 (0.35–9.24) Estrogen
Estriol E3; 16α-OH-17β-E2 12.65 (4.03–56) 26 (14.0–44.6) 0.45 (0.35–1.4) 0.7 (0.63–0.7) Estrogen
Estetrol E4; 15α,16α-Di-OH-17β-E2 4.0 3.0 4.9 19 Estrogen
Alfatradiol 17α-Estradiol 20.5 (7–80.1) 8.195 (2–42) 0.2–0.52 0.43–1.2 Metabolite
16-Epiestriol 16β-Hydroxy-17β-estradiol 7.795 (4.94–63) 50 ? ? Metabolite
17-Epiestriol 16α-Hydroxy-17α-estradiol 55.45 (29–103) 79–80 ? ? Metabolite
16,17-Epiestriol 16β-Hydroxy-17α-estradiol 1.0 13 ? ? Metabolite
2-Hydroxyestradiol 2-OH-E2 22 (7–81) 11–35 2.5 1.3 Metabolite
2-Methoxyestradiol 2-MeO-E2 0.0027–2.0 1.0 ? ? Metabolite
4-Hydroxyestradiol 4-OH-E2 13 (8–70) 7–56 1.0 1.9 Metabolite
4-Methoxyestradiol 4-MeO-E2 2.0 1.0 ? ? Metabolite
2-Hydroxyestrone 2-OH-E1 2.0–4.0 0.2–0.4 ? ? Metabolite
2-Methoxyestrone 2-MeO-E1 <0.001–<1 <1 ? ? Metabolite
4-Hydroxyestrone 4-OH-E1 1.0–2.0 1.0 ? ? Metabolite
4-Methoxyestrone 4-MeO-E1 <1 <1 ? ? Metabolite
16α-Hydroxyestrone 16α-OH-E1; 17-Ketoestriol 2.0–6.5 35 ? ? Metabolite
2-Hydroxyestriol 2-OH-E3 2.0 1.0 ? ? Metabolite
4-Methoxyestriol 4-MeO-E3 1.0 1.0 ? ? Metabolite
Estradiol sulfate E2S; Estradiol 3-sulfate <1 <1 ? ? Metabolite
Estradiol disulfate Estradiol 3,17β-disulfate 0.0004 ? ? ? Metabolite
Estradiol 3-glucuronide E2-3G 0.0079 ? ? ? Metabolite
Estradiol 17β-glucuronide E2-17G 0.0015 ? ? ? Metabolite
Estradiol 3-gluc. 17β-sulfate E2-3G-17S 0.0001 ? ? ? Metabolite
Estrone sulfate E1S; Estrone 3-sulfate <1 <1 >10 >10 Metabolite
Estradiol benzoate EB; Estradiol 3-benzoate 10 ? ? ? Estrogen
Estradiol 17β-benzoate E2-17B 11.3 32.6 ? ? Estrogen
Estrone methyl ether Estrone 3-methyl ether 0.145 ? ? ? Estrogen
ent-Estradiol 1-Estradiol 1.31–12.34 9.44–80.07 ? ? Estrogen
Equilin 7-Dehydroestrone 13 (4.0–28.9) 13.0–49 0.79 0.36 Estrogen
Equilenin 6,8-Didehydroestrone 2.0–15 7.0–20 0.64 0.62 Estrogen
17β-Dihydroequilin 7-Dehydro-17β-estradiol 7.9–113 7.9–108 0.09 0.17 Estrogen
17α-Dihydroequilin 7-Dehydro-17α-estradiol 18.6 (18–41) 14–32 0.24 0.57 Estrogen
17β-Dihydroequilenin 6,8-Didehydro-17β-estradiol 35–68 90–100 0.15 0.20 Estrogen
17α-Dihydroequilenin 6,8-Didehydro-17α-estradiol 20 49 0.50 0.37 Estrogen
Δ8-Estradiol 8,9-Dehydro-17β-estradiol 68 72 0.15 0.25 Estrogen
Δ8-Estrone 8,9-Dehydroestrone 19 32 0.52 0.57 Estrogen
Ethinylestradiol EE; 17α-Ethynyl-17β-E2 120.9 (68.8–480) 44.4 (2.0–144) 0.02–0.05 0.29–0.81 Estrogen
Mestranol EE 3-methyl ether ? 2.5 ? ? Estrogen
Moxestrol RU-2858; 11β-Methoxy-EE 35–43 5–20 0.5 2.6 Estrogen
Methylestradiol 17α-Methyl-17β-estradiol 70 44 ? ? Estrogen
Diethylstilbestrol DES; Stilbestrol 129.5 (89.1–468) 219.63 (61.2–295) 0.04 0.05 Estrogen
Hexestrol Dihydrodiethylstilbestrol 153.6 (31–302) 60–234 0.06 0.06 Estrogen
Dienestrol Dehydrostilbestrol 37 (20.4–223) 56–404 0.05 0.03 Estrogen
Benzestrol (B2) 114 ? ? ? Estrogen
Chlorotrianisene TACE 1.74 ? 15.30 ? Estrogen
Triphenylethylene TPE 0.074 ? ? ? Estrogen
Triphenylbromoethylene TPBE 2.69 ? ? ? Estrogen
Tamoxifen ICI-46,474 3 (0.1–47) 3.33 (0.28–6) 3.4–9.69 2.5 SERM
Afimoxifene 4-Hydroxytamoxifen; 4-OHT 100.1 (1.7–257) 10 (0.98–339) 2.3 (0.1–3.61) 0.04–4.8 SERM
Toremifene 4-Chlorotamoxifen; 4-CT ? ? 7.14–20.3 15.4 SERM
Clomifene MRL-41 25 (19.2–37.2) 12 0.9 1.2 SERM
Cyclofenil F-6066; Sexovid 151–152 243 ? ? SERM
Nafoxidine U-11,000A 30.9–44 16 0.3 0.8 SERM
Raloxifene 41.2 (7.8–69) 5.34 (0.54–16) 0.188–0.52 20.2 SERM
Arzoxifene LY-353,381 ? ? 0.179 ? SERM
Lasofoxifene CP-336,156 10.2–166 19.0 0.229 ? SERM
Ormeloxifene Centchroman ? ? 0.313 ? SERM
Levormeloxifene 6720-CDRI; NNC-460,020 1.55 1.88 ? ? SERM
Ospemifene Deaminohydroxytoremifene 2.63 1.22 ? ? SERM
Bazedoxifene ? ? 0.053 ? SERM
Etacstil GW-5638 4.30 11.5 ? ? SERM
ICI-164,384 63.5 (3.70–97.7) 166 0.2 0.08 Antiestrogen
Fulvestrant ICI-182,780 43.5 (9.4–325) 21.65 (2.05–40.5) 0.42 1.3 Antiestrogen
Propylpyrazoletriol PPT 49 (10.0–89.1) 0.12 0.40 92.8 ERα agonist
16α-LE2 16α-Lactone-17β-estradiol 14.6–57 0.089 0.27 131 ERα agonist
16α-Iodo-E2 16α-Iodo-17β-estradiol 30.2 2.30 ? ? ERα agonist
Methylpiperidinopyrazole MPP 11 0.05 ? ? ERα antagonist
Diarylpropionitrile DPN 0.12–0.25 6.6–18 32.4 1.7 ERβ agonist
8β-VE2 8β-Vinyl-17β-estradiol 0.35 22.0–83 12.9 0.50 ERβ agonist
Prinaberel ERB-041; WAY-202,041 0.27 67–72 ? ? ERβ agonist
ERB-196 WAY-202,196 ? 180 ? ? ERβ agonist
Erteberel SERBA-1; LY-500,307 ? ? 2.68 0.19 ERβ agonist
SERBA-2 ? ? 14.5 1.54 ERβ agonist
Coumestrol 9.225 (0.0117–94) 64.125 (0.41–185) 0.14–80.0 0.07–27.0 Xenoestrogen
Genistein 0.445 (0.0012–16) 33.42 (0.86–87) 2.6–126 0.3–12.8 Xenoestrogen
Equol 0.2–0.287 0.85 (0.10–2.85) ? ? Xenoestrogen
Daidzein 0.07 (0.0018–9.3) 0.7865 (0.04–17.1) 2.0 85.3 Xenoestrogen
Biochanin A 0.04 (0.022–0.15) 0.6225 (0.010–1.2) 174 8.9 Xenoestrogen
Kaempferol 0.07 (0.029–0.10) 2.2 (0.002–3.00) ? ? Xenoestrogen
Naringenin 0.0054 (<0.001–0.01) 0.15 (0.11–0.33) ? ? Xenoestrogen
8-Prenylnaringenin 8-PN 4.4 ? ? ? Xenoestrogen
Quercetin <0.001–0.01 0.002–0.040 ? ? Xenoestrogen
Ipriflavone <0.01 <0.01 ? ? Xenoestrogen
Miroestrol 0.39 ? ? ? Xenoestrogen
Deoxymiroestrol 2.0 ? ? ? Xenoestrogen
β-Sitosterol <0.001–0.0875 <0.001–0.016 ? ? Xenoestrogen
Resveratrol <0.001–0.0032 ? ? ? Xenoestrogen
α-Zearalenol 48 (13–52.5) ? ? ? Xenoestrogen
β-Zearalenol 0.6 (0.032–13) ? ? ? Xenoestrogen
Zeranol α-Zearalanol 48–111 ? ? ? Xenoestrogen
Taleranol β-Zearalanol 16 (13–17.8) 14 0.8 0.9 Xenoestrogen
Zearalenone ZEN 7.68 (2.04–28) 9.45 (2.43–31.5) ? ? Xenoestrogen
Zearalanone ZAN 0.51 ? ? ? Xenoestrogen
Bisphenol A BPA 0.0315 (0.008–1.0) 0.135 (0.002–4.23) 195 35 Xenoestrogen
Endosulfan EDS <0.001–<0.01 <0.01 ? ? Xenoestrogen
Kepone Chlordecone 0.0069–0.2 ? ? ? Xenoestrogen
o,p'-DDT 0.0073–0.4 ? ? ? Xenoestrogen
p,p'-DDT 0.03 ? ? ? Xenoestrogen
Methoxychlor p,p'-Dimethoxy-DDT 0.01 (<0.001–0.02) 0.01–0.13 ? ? Xenoestrogen
HPTE Hydroxychlor; p,p'-OH-DDT 1.2–1.7 ? ? ? Xenoestrogen
Testosterone T; 4-Androstenolone <0.0001–<0.01 <0.002–0.040 >5000 >5000 Androgen
Dihydrotestosterone DHT; 5α-Androstanolone 0.01 (<0.001–0.05) 0.0059–0.17 221–>5000 73–1688 Androgen
Nandrolone 19-Nortestosterone; 19-NT 0.01 0.23 765 53 Androgen
Dehydroepiandrosterone DHEA; Prasterone 0.038 (<0.001–0.04) 0.019–0.07 245–1053 163–515 Androgen
5-Androstenediol A5; Androstenediol 6 17 3.6 0.9 Androgen
4-Androstenediol 0.5 0.6 23 19 Androgen
4-Androstenedione A4; Androstenedione <0.01 <0.01 >10000 >10000 Androgen
3α-Androstanediol 3α-Adiol 0.07 0.3 260 48 Androgen
3β-Androstanediol 3β-Adiol 3 7 6 2 Androgen
Androstanedione 5α-Androstanedione <0.01 <0.01 >10000 >10000 Androgen
Etiocholanedione 5β-Androstanedione <0.01 <0.01 >10000 >10000 Androgen
Methyltestosterone 17α-Methyltestosterone <0.0001 ? ? ? Androgen
Ethinyl-3α-androstanediol 17α-Ethynyl-3α-adiol 4.0 <0.07 ? ? Estrogen
Ethinyl-3β-androstanediol 17α-Ethynyl-3β-adiol 50 5.6 ? ? Estrogen
Progesterone P4; 4-Pregnenedione <0.001–0.6 <0.001–0.010 ? ? Progestogen
Norethisterone NET; 17α-Ethynyl-19-NT 0.085 (0.0015–<0.1) 0.1 (0.01–0.3) 152 1084 Progestogen
Norethynodrel 5(10)-Norethisterone 0.5 (0.3–0.7) <0.1–0.22 14 53 Progestogen
Tibolone 7α-Methylnorethynodrel 0.5 (0.45–2.0) 0.2–0.076 ? ? Progestogen
Δ4-Tibolone 7α-Methylnorethisterone 0.069–<0.1 0.027–<0.1 ? ? Progestogen
3α-Hydroxytibolone 2.5 (1.06–5.0) 0.6–0.8 ? ? Progestogen
3β-Hydroxytibolone 1.6 (0.75–1.9) 0.070–0.1 ? ? Progestogen
Footnotes: a = (1) Binding affinity values are of the format "median (range)" (# (#–#)), "range" (#–#), or "value" (#) depending on the values available. The full sets of values within the ranges can be found in the Wiki code. (2) Binding affinities were determined via displacement studies in a variety of in-vitro systems with labeled estradiol and human ERα and ERβ proteins (except the ERβ values from Kuiper et al. (1997), which are rat ERβ). Sources: See template page.
Selected biological properties of endogenous estrogens in rats
Estrogen ER RBA (%) Uterine weight (%) Uterotrophy LH levels (%) SHBG RBA (%)
Control 100 100
Estradiol 100 506 ± 20 +++ 12–19 100
Estrone 11 ± 8 490 ± 22 +++ ? 20
Estriol 10 ± 4 468 ± 30 +++ 8–18 3
Estetrol 0.5 ± 0.2 ? Inactive ? 1
17α-Estradiol 4.2 ± 0.8 ? ? ? ?
2-Hydroxyestradiol 24 ± 7 285 ± 8 +b 31–61 28
2-Methoxyestradiol 0.05 ± 0.04 101 Inactive ? 130
4-Hydroxyestradiol 45 ± 12 ? ? ? ?
4-Methoxyestradiol 1.3 ± 0.2 260 ++ ? 9
4-Fluoroestradiola 180 ± 43 ? +++ ? ?
2-Hydroxyestrone 1.9 ± 0.8 130 ± 9 Inactive 110–142 8
2-Methoxyestrone 0.01 ± 0.00 103 ± 7 Inactive 95–100 120
4-Hydroxyestrone 11 ± 4 351 ++ 21–50 35
4-Methoxyestrone 0.13 ± 0.04 338 ++ 65–92 12
16α-Hydroxyestrone 2.8 ± 1.0 552 ± 42 +++ 7–24 <0.5
2-Hydroxyestriol 0.9 ± 0.3 302 +b ? ?
2-Methoxyestriol 0.01 ± 0.00 ? Inactive ? 4
Notes: Values are mean ± SD or range. ER RBA = Relative binding affinity to estrogen receptors of rat uterine cytosol. Uterine weight = Percentage change in uterine wet weight of ovariectomized rats after 72 hours with continuous administration of 1 μg/hour via subcutaneously implanted osmotic pumps. LH levels = Luteinizing hormone levels relative to baseline of ovariectomized rats after 24 to 72 hours of continuous administration via subcutaneous implant. Footnotes: a = Synthetic (i.e., not endogenous). b = Atypical uterotrophic effect which plateaus within 48 hours (estradiol's uterotrophy continues linearly up to 72 hours). Sources: See template.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ J. Elks (14 November 2014). The Dictionary of Drugs: Chemical Data: Chemical Data, Structures and Bibliographies. Springer. pp. 897–. ISBN 978-1-4757-2085-3.
  2. ^ a b c Zhu BT, Han GZ, Shim JY, Wen Y, Jiang XR (2006). "Quantitative structure-activity relationship of various endogenous estrogen metabolites for human estrogen receptor alpha and beta subtypes: Insights into the structural determinants favoring a differential subtype binding". Endocrinology. 147 (9): 4132–50. doi:10.1210/en.2006-0113. PMID 16728493.
  3. ^ Ralph M. Trüeb; Won-Soo Lee (13 February 2014). Male Alopecia: Guide to Successful Management. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 93–. ISBN 978-3-319-03233-7.
  4. ^ Kuiper GG, Carlsson B, Grandien K, Enmark E, Häggblad J, Nilsson S, Gustafsson JA (1997). "Comparison of the ligand binding specificity and transcript tissue distribution of estrogen receptors alpha and beta". Endocrinology. 138 (3): 863–70. doi:10.1210/endo.138.3.4979. PMID 9048584.
  5. ^ Toran-Allerand CD, Tinnikov AA, Singh RJ, Nethrapalli IS (2005). "17alpha-estradiol: a brain-active estrogen?". Endocrinology. 146 (9): 3843–50. doi:10.1210/en.2004-1616. PMID 15947006.